In , François Magendie discovered that dogs fed only carbohydrates sugar , fat olive oil , and water died evidently of starvation, but dogs also fed protein survived, identifying protein as an essential dietary component. Nuts are dense in calories so about handful is an appropriate serving. Laboratory studies suggest that anthocyanins and their metabolites, which are produced by gut microflora, may decrease inflammatory markers associated with increased CVD risk. In the s, Paracelsus was probably the first to criticize Galen publicly. High calorie food ingredients such as vegetable oils, sugar and alcohol are referred to as "empty calories" because they displace from the diet foods that also contain protein, vitamins, minerals and fiber. A vitamin A deficiency can lead to xerophthalmia, a progressive eye disease that can damage normal vision and result in night blindness, or the inability to see in low light or darkness. In any known profit-driven economy, health considerations are hardly a priority; effective production of cheap foods with a long shelf-life is more the trend.
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