Nutrition Landscape Information System (NLiS)
Promoting Healthy Youth, Schools and Communities: Operational guidance for tracking progress in meeting targets for The indicator gives the percentage of mothers of children aged months who have received counselling, support or messages on optimal breastfeeding at least once in the last year. Law and practice across the world. The higher the score a country has, the better the assessment has it received regarding the six governance elements. The SUN Movement Secretariat maintains two types of finance datasets based on data received from countries.
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Anaemia is associated with increased risks for maternal and child mortality. Iron-deficiency anaemia reduces the work capacity of individuals and entire populations, with serious consequences for the economy and national development.
In addition, the negative consequences of iron-deficiency anaemia on the cognitive and physical development of children and on physical performance - particularly the work productivity of adults - are major concerns.
Anaemia is a global problem affecting all countries. Resource-poor areas are often more heavily impacted due to the prevalence of infectious diseases. The main risk factors for iron-deficiency anaemia include a low dietary intake of iron or poor absorption of iron from diets rich in phytates or phenolic compounds. Population groups with greater iron requirements, such as growing children and pregnant women, are particularly at risk.
Overall, the most vulnerable, poorest and least educated groups are disproportionately affected by iron-deficiency anaemia. Prevalence cut-off values for public health significance. No public health problem. Mild public health problem. Moderate public health problem. Severe public health problem. Stevens GA et al. Global, regional, and national trends in haemoglobin concentration and prevalence of total and severe anaemia in children and pregnant and non-pregnant women for Lancet Global Health ; ; 1: Data about haemoglobin and anaemia for women of childbearing age 15—49 years were estimated for each country and for each year between and using survey data obtained from population-representative data sources from countries worldwide.
A Bayesian hierarchical mixture model was used to estimate haemoglobin distributions and systematically addressed missing data, non-linear time trends, and representativeness of data sources.
More information on the methodology can be found in: Haemoglobin concentrations for the diagnosis of anaemia and assessment of severity. Vitamin and Mineral Nutrition Information System. Cut-off values for public health significance. Vitamin A deficiency results from inadequate dietary intake of vitamin A to satisfy physiological needs.
It may be exacerbated by high rates of infection, especially diarrhoea and measles. It is common in developing countries but rarely seen in developed countries. Vitamin A deficiency is a public health problem in more than half of all countries, especially those in Africa and South-East Asia, most severely affecting young children and pregnant women in low-income countries.
Vitamin A deficiency can be defined clinically or subclinically. The stages of xerophthalmia [clinical spectrum of ocular manifestations of vitamin A deficiency, from the milder stages of night blindness and Bitot spots to the potentially blinding stages of corneal xerosis, ulceration and necrosis keratomalacia ] are regarded both as disorders and clinical indicators of vitamin A deficiency.
Night blindness in which it is difficult or impossible to see in relatively low light is one of the clinical signs of vitamin A deficiency and is common during pregnancy in developing countries.
Retinol is the main circulating form of vitamin A in blood and plasma. Serum retinol levels reflect liver vitamin A stores when they are severely depleted or extremely high, but between these extremes, plasma or serum retinol is homeostatically controlled and therefore does not always correlate well with vitamin A intake.
Therefore, serum retinol is best used for the assessment of subclinical vitamin A deficiency in a population not an individual. Blood concentrations of retinol the chemical name for vitamin A in plasma or serum are used to assess subclinical vitamin A deficiency.
Night blindness is one of the first signs of vitamin A deficiency. In its more severe forms, vitamin A deficiency contributes to blindness by making the cornea very dry and damaging the retina and cornea.
An estimated — vitamin A-deficient children become blind every year, and half of them die within 12 months of losing their sight. Vitamin A deficiency also contributes to maternal mortality and other poor outcomes of pregnancy and lactation. Furthermore, it diminishes the ability to fight infections. Even mild, subclinical deficiency can be a problem, as it may increase children's risk for respiratory and diarrhoeal infections, decrease growth rates, slow bone development and decrease the likelihood of survival from serious illness.
Serum or plasma retinol. Night blindness XN in pregnant women. Micronutrients Database [online database]. The new database is not yet publically available and the NLIS country profiles have not yet been updated. Global prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in populations at risk — Serum retinol concentrations for determining the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in populations.
Xerophthalmia and night blindness for the assessment of clinical vitamin A deficiency in individuals and populations. Vitamin A deficiency, list of publications. Trends and mortality effects of vitamin A deficiency in children in low-income and middle-income countries between and This indicator allows an assessment of iodine deficiency at the population level. Iodine is an essential trace element that is present on the thyroid hormones, thyroxine and triiodotyronine.
It occurs most frequently in areas where there is little iodine in the diet—typically remote inland areas where no marine foods are eaten. Although goitre assessment by palpation or ultrasound may be useful for assessing thyroid function, results are difficult to interpret once salt iodization programmes have started. The median urinary iodine concentration is considered the main indicator of iodine status for all age groups, because its measurement is relatively non-invasive, cost-efficient and easy to perform.
Since the majority of iodine absorbed by the body is excreted in the urine, it is considered a sensitive marker of current iodine intake and can reflect recent changes in iodine status. Median urinary iodine concentrations have been most commonly measured in school children aged 6—12 years due to their easy access. During the neonatal period, childhood and adolescence, iodine deficiency disorders can lead to hypo- and hyperthyroidism. Serious iodine deficiency during pregnancy can result in stillbirth, spontaneous abortion and congenital abnormalities such as cretinism, a grave, irreversible form of mental retardation that affects people living in iodine-deficient areas of Africa and Asia.
Of even greater significance is the less visible, yet pervasive, mental impairment that reduces intellectual capacity at home, in school and at work. Cut-off values for public health significance in different target groups. Concentration cut-off values for public health significance. May pose a slight risk of more than adequate iodine intake in these populations. Risk of adverse health consequences iodine-induced hyperthyroidism, autoimmune thyroid disease.
Urinary iodine concentrations for determining iodine status deficiency in populations. Goitre as a determinant of the prevalence and severity of iodine deficiency disorders in populations. Iodine deficiency, list of publications. Global iodine status in and trends over the past decade.
In NLIS, it is used as a proxy for access to health services and maternal care. The indicator gives the percentage of live births attended by skilled health personnel in a given period. A skilled birth attendant is an accredited health professional—such as a midwife, doctor or nurse—who has been educated and trained to proficiency in the skills needed to manage normal uncomplicated pregnancies, childbirth and the immediate postnatal period, and in the identification, management and referral of women and newborns for complications.
In developed countries and in many urban areas in developing countries, skilled care at delivery is usually provided in health facilities. Births do, however, take place in various other appropriate places, from home to tertiary referral centres, depending on availability and need. WHO does not recommend a particular setting for giving birth. Home delivery may be appropriate for normal births, provided that the person attending the delivery is suitably trained and equipped and that referral to a higher level of care is an option, however this may lead to an overestimation of births attended by skilled personal as infants delivered outside of a health facility may not have their birth method recorded.
All women should have access to skilled care during pregnancy and at delivery to ensure the detection and management of complications. One woman dies needlessly of pregnancy-related causes every minute, representing more than half a million mothers lost each year, a figure that has improved little over the past few decades. Another 8 million or more suffer life-long health consequences from the complications of pregnancy.
The lack of progress in reducing maternal mortality in many countries often reflects the low value placed on the lives of women and their limited role in setting public priorities.
The lives of many women in developing countries could be saved by reproductive health interventions that people in rich countries take for granted, such as the presence of skilled health personnel at delivery. Improved sanitation facilit ies and drinking-water sources. What do these indicators tell us? These indicators are the percentage of population with access to an improved drinking-water source and improved sanitation facilities.
How are they defined? Improved drinking-water sources are defined in terms of the types of technology and levels of services that are likely to provide safe water. Improved water sources include household connections, public standpipes, boreholes, protected dug wells, protected springs and rainwater collection.
Unimproved water sources are unprotected wells, unprotected springs, vendor-provided water, bottled water unless water for other uses is available from an improved source and tanker truck-provided water.
Improved sanitation facilities are defined in terms of the types of technology and levels of services that are likely to be sanitary. Improved sanitation includes connection to a public sewers, connection to septic systems, pour-flush latrines, simple pit latrines and ventilated improved pit latrines. Service or bucket latrines from which excreta are removed manually , public latrines and open latrines are not considered to be improved sanitation. Access to safe drinking-water and improved sanitation are fundamental needs and human rights vital for the dignity and health of all people.
The health and economic benefits of a safe water supply to households and individuals especially children are well documented. Both indicators are used to monitor progress towards the Millennium Development Goals. Water, Sanitation and Hygiene. World Health Statistics, Children aged 1 y ear immunized against measles. Estimates of vaccination coverage of children aged 1 year are used to monitor vaccination services, to guide disease eradication and elimination programmes and as indicators of health system performance.
Measles vaccination coverage is defined as the percentage of 1-year-olds who have received at least one dose of measles-containing vaccine in a given year.
In countries that recommend that the first dose be given to children over 12 months of age, the indicator is calculated as the proportion of children under 24 months of age receiving one dose of measles-containing vaccine.
Measles is a leading cause of vaccine-preventable childhood deaths, and unvaccinated populations are at risk for the disease. Measles is a significant infectious disease because it is so contagious that the number of people who would suffer complications after an outbreak among nonimmune people would quickly overwhelm available hospital resources.
When vaccination rates fall, the number of nonimmune persons in the community rises, and the risk for an outbreak of measles consequently rises. Millennium Development Goals indicators database. This indicator reflects the percentage of women who consumed any iron-containing supplements during the current or past pregnancy within the last 2 years.
It provides information about the quality and coverage of perinatal medical services. Daily iron and folic acid supplementation is currently recommended by WHO as part of antenatal care to reduce the risk of low birth weight, maternal anaemia and iron deficiency. However, despite its proven efficacy and wide inclusion in antenatal care programmes, its use has been limited in programme settings, possibly due to a lack of compliance, concerns about the safety of the intervention among women with an adequate iron intake, and variable availability of the supplements at community level.
This indicator is included as a process indicator in the core set of indicators for the Global Nutrition Monitoring Framework. The indicator is defined as the proportion of women who consumed any iron-containing supplements during the current or past pregnancy within the last 2 years. Data can be reported on any iron-containing supplement including iron and folic acid tablets IFA , multiple micronutrient tablets or powders, or iron-only tablets which will vary by country policy.
Improving the intake of iron and folic acid by women of reproductive age could improve pregnancy outcomes and enhance maternal and infant health. Iron and folic acid supplementation improve iron and folate status of women before and during pregnancy, in communities where food-based strategies are not yet fully implemented or effective.
Folic acid supplementation with or without iron provided before pregnancy and during the first trimester of pregnancy is also recommended for decreasing the risk of neural tube defects. Anaemia during pregnancy places women at risk for poor pregnancy outcomes, including maternal mortality and also increases the risks for perinatal mortality, premature birth and low birth weight.
Infants born to anaemic mothers have less than one half the normal iron reserves. Morbidity from infectious diseases is increased in iron-deficient populations, because of the adverse effect of iron deficiency on the immune system. Iron deficiency is also associated with reduced work capacity and with reduced neurocognitive development. Demographic and Health Surveys.
Global Nutrition Monitoring Framework: Operational guidance for tracking progress in meeting targets for Children with diarrhoea receiving oral rehydration therapy. This indicator is the prevalence of children with diarrhoea who received oral rehydration therapy. It is the proportion of children aged 0—59 months who had diarrhoea and were treated with oral rehydration salts or an appropriate household solution. The terms used for diarrhoea should cover the expressions used for all forms of diarrhoea, including bloody stools consistent with dysentery and watery stools, and should encompasses mothers' definitions as well as local terms.
Diarrhoeal diseases remain one of the major causes of mortality among children under 5, accounting for 1. As oral rehydration therapy is a critical component of effective management of diarrhoea, monitoring coverage with this highly cost—effective intervention indicates progress on an intermediate outcome indicator of the Global Nutrition Targets, prevalence of diarrhoea in children under 5 years of age.
Children with diarrhoea receiving zinc. This indicator reflects the prevalence of children who were given zinc as part of treatment for acute diarrhoea. Unfortunately, there are no readily available data on this indicator, which is maintained in the NLIS to encourage countries to collect and compile data on these aspects in order to assess their national capacity.
Measures to prevent childhood diarrhoeal episodes include promoting zinc intake. Diarrhoeal diseases account for nearly 2 million deaths a year among children under 5, making them the second most-common cause of child death worldwide. The greater the prevalence of zinc supplementation during diarrhoea treatment, the better the outcome of treatment for diarrhoea.
WHO and the United Nations Children's Fund UNICEF recommend exclusive breastfeeding, vitamin A supplementation, improved hygiene, better access to cleaner sources of drinking-water and sanitation facilities and vaccination against rotavirus in the clinical management of acute diarrhoea and also the use of zinc, which is safe and effective.
Specifically, zinc supplements given during an episode of acute diarrhoea reduce the duration and severity of the episode, and giving zinc supplements for days lowers the incidence of diarrhoea in the following months.
Currently no data are available. The impact of zinc supplementation on childhood mortality and severe morbidity. Report of a workshop to review the results of three large studies. Geneva , World Health Organization, Children aged months receiving v itamin A supplements. These indicators are the proportion of children aged months who received one and two doses of vitamin A supplements, respectively.
The indicators are defined as the proportion of children aged months who received one or two high doses of vitamin A supplements within 1 year. Current international recommendations call for high-dose vitamin A supplementation every months for all children between the ages of 6 and 59 months living in affected areas.
The recommended doses are IU for month-old children and IU for those aged months. Programmes to control vitamin A deficiency enhance children's chances of survival, reduce the severity of childhood illnesses, ease the strain on health systems and hospitals and contribute to the well-being of children, their families and communities.
The World Summit for Children set the goal of virtual elimination of vitamin A deficiency and its consequences, including blindness, by the year The critical role of vitamin A for child health and immune function also makes control of deficiency a primary component of efforts to improve child survival and therefore of the achievement of the fourth Millennium Development Goal, a two-thirds reduction in mortality of children under 5 by the year As there is strong evidence that supplementation with vitamin A reduces child mortality, measuring the proportion of children who have received vitamin A within the past 6 months can be used to monitor coverage with interventions for achieving the child survival-related Millennium Development Goals.
Supplementation with vitamin A is a safe, cost-effective, efficient means for eliminating its deficiency and improving child survival. Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals. These indicators are the proportion of children aged months who received one or two doses of vitamin A supplements. The indicator reflects the proportion of babies born in facilities that have been designated as Baby-friendly.
Proportion of births in Baby-friendly facilities is included as a process indicator in the core set of indicators for the Global Nutrition Monitoring Framework. This indicator is defined as the proportion of babies born in facilities designated as Baby-friendly in a calendar year. To be counted as currently Baby-friendly, the facility must have been designated within the last five years or been reassessed within that timeframe. Facilities may be designed as Baby-friendly if they meet the minimum Global Criteria, which includes adherence to the Ten Steps for Successful Breastfeeding and the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes.
The Ten steps include having a breastfeeding policy that is routinely communicated to staff, having staff trained on policy implementation, informing pregnant women on the benefits and management of breastfeeding, promoting early initiation of breastfeeding, among others. The International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes restricts the distribution of free infant formula and promotional materials from infant formula companies.
The more of the Steps that the mother experiences, the better her success with breastfeeding. Improved breastfeeding practices worldwide could save the lives of over children every year. National implementation of the Baby-friendly Hospital Initiative. Implementation of the Baby-friendly Hospital Initiative.
Mothers of children months receiving counselling, support or messages on optimal breastfeeding. Breastfeeding is an unequalled way of providing ideal food for the healthy growth and development of infants; it is also an integral part of the reproductive process with important implications for the health of mothers. Optimal practices include early initiation of breastfeeding within 1 hour, exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months followed by appropriate complementary with continued breastfeeding for 2 years or beyond.
Even though it is a natural act, breastfeeding is also a learned behaviour. Virtually all mothers can breastfeed provided they have accurate information, and support within their families and communities and from the health care system.
This indicator has been established to measure the proportion of mothers receiving breastfeeding counselling, support or messages. The proportion of mothers of children months who have received counselling, support or messages on optimal breastfeeding at least once in the previous 12 months is included as a process indicator in the core set of indicators for the Global Nutrition Monitoring Framework. The indicator gives the percentage of mothers of children aged months who have received counselling, support or messages on optimal breastfeeding at least once in the last year.
Counseling and informational support on optimal breastfeeding practices for mothers has been demonstrated to improve initiation and duration of breastfeeding, which in has many health benefits for both the mother and infant. Breast milk contains all the nutrients an infant needs in the first six months of life. Breastfeeding protects against diarrhoea and common childhood illnesses such as pneumonia, and may also have longer-term health benefits for the mother and child, such as reducing the risk of overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence.
Breastfeeding has also been associated with higher intelligence quotient IQ in children. Salt iodization has been adopted as the main strategy for eliminating iodine-deficiency disorders as a public health problem, and the aim is to achieve universal salt iodization. While other foodstuffs can be iodized, salt has the advantage of being widely consumed and inexpensive.
Salt has been iodized routinely in some industrialized countries since the s. This indicator is a measure of whether a fortification programme is reaching the target population adequately.
The indicator is a measure of the percentage of households consuming iodized salt, defined as salt containing parts per million of iodine. Iodine deficiency is most commonly and visibly associated with thyroid problems e. Consumption of iodized salt increased in the developing world during the past decade: This means that about 84 million newborns are now being protected from learning disabilities due to iodine-deficiency disorders.
Monitoring the situation of women and children. Sustainable elimination of iodine deficiency disorders by Micronutrient deficiencies, iodine deficiency disorders. Population with less than the minimum dietary energy consumption.
This indicator is the percentage of the population whose food intake falls below the minimum level of dietary energy requirements, and who therefore are undernourished or food-deprived. The estimates of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations FAO of the prevalence of undernourishment are essentially measures of food deprivation based on calculations of three parameters for each country: The average amount of food available for human consumption is derived from national 'food balance sheets' compiled by FAO each year, which show how much of each food commodity a country produces, imports and withdraws from stocks for other, non-food purposes.
FAO then divides the energy equivalent of all the food available for human consumption by the total population, to derive average daily energy consumption. Data from household surveys are used to derive a coefficient of variation to account for the degree of inequality in access to food. Similarly, because a large adult needs almost twice as much dietary energy as a 3-year-old child, the minimum energy requirement per person in each country is based on age, gender and body sizes in that country.
The average energy requirement is the amount of food energy needed to balance energy expenditure in order to maintain body weight, body composition and levels of necessary and desirable physical activity consistent with long-term good health. It includes the energy needed for the optimal growth and development of children, for the deposition of tissues during pregnancy and for the secretion of milk during lactation consistent with the good health of the mother and child.
The recommended level of dietary energy intake for a population group is the mean energy requirement of the healthy, well-nourished individuals who constitute that group. FAO reports the proportion of the population whose daily food intake falls below that minimum energy requirement as 'undernourished'.
Trends in undernourishment are due mainly to: The indicator is a measure of an important aspect of food insecurity in a population. Sustainable development requires a concerted effort to reduce poverty, including solutions to hunger and malnutrition.
Alleviating hunger is a prerequisite for sustainable poverty reduction, as undernourishment seriously affects labour productivity and earning capacity. Malnutrition can be the outcome of a range of circumstances. In order for poverty reduction strategies to be effective, they must address food access, availability and safety. More information on the methodology can be found in: Haemoglobin concentrations for the diagnosis of anaemia and assessment of severity.
Vitamin and Mineral Nutrition Information System. At population level, the proportion of infants with a low birth weight is an indicator of a multifaceted public health problem that includes long-term maternal mal nutrition , ill health and poor health care in pregnancy. Low birth weight is more common in developing than developed countries. Low birth weight is included as a primary outcome indicator in the core set of indicators for the Global Nutrition Monitoring Framework.
Low birth weight is caused by intrauterine growth restriction, prematurity or both. It contributes to a range of poor health outcomes: Low-birth-weight infants are approximately 20 times more likely to die than heavier infants. However, data on low birth weight in developing countries is often limited because a significant portion of deliveries are done in homes or small health facilities where cases of infants with low birth weight often go unreported.
These cases are not reflected in official figures and may lead to a significant underestimation of low birth weight prevalence.
Feto-maternal nutrition and low birth weight. Low birth weight policy brief. The caring practice indicators for infant and young child feeding available on the NLIS country profiles include:.
Early initiation of breastfeeding is defined as the proportion of children born in the past 24 months who were put to the breast within 1 hour of birth. Breastfeeding contributes to saving children's lives, and there is evidence that delayed initiation of breastfeeding increases their risk for mortality.
Exclusive breastfeeding is an unequalled way of providing the ideal food for the healthy growth and development of infants; it is also an integral part of the reproductive process, with important implications for the health of mothers.
An expert review of evidence showed that, on a population basis, exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months is the optimal way of feeding infants. Thereafter, infants should receive complementary foods with continued breastfeeding up to 2 years of age or beyond. Breast milk is the natural first food for infants. It provides all the energy and nutrients that the infant needs for the first months of life. It continues to provide up to one half or more of a child's nutritional needs during the second half of the first year and up to one third during the second year of life.
Breast milk promotes sensory and cognitive development and protects the infant against infectious and chronic diseases. Exclusive breastfeeding reduces infant mortality due to common childhood illnesses, such as diarrhoea and pneumonia, and leads to quicker recovery from illness.
Breastfeeding contributes to the health and well-being of mothers, by helping to space children, reducing their risks for ovarian and breast cancers and saving family and national resources.
It is a secure way of feeding and is safe for the environment. The indicator is the percentage of infants who start solid, semisolid or soft foods at between 6 and 8 months of age. WHO recommends starting complementary feeding at 6 months of age. It is defined as the proportion of infants aged months who receive solid, semisolid or soft foods. When breast milk alone no longer meets the nutritional needs of the infant, complementary foods should be added.
The transition from exclusive breastfeeding to family foods, referred to as 'complementary feeding', typically occurs between 6 and months of age. This is a very vulnerable period, and it is the time when malnutrition often starts, contributing significantly to the high prevalence of malnutrition among children under 5 worldwide.
This indicator is the percentage of children aged months who receive a minimum acceptable diet. A minimum acceptable diet is essential to ensure appropriate growth and development for feeding infants and children aged months. Without adequate diversity and meal frequency, infants and young children are vulnerable to malnutrition, especially stunting and micronutrient deficiencies, and to increased morbidity and mortality.
Infant and young child feeding list of publications. The optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding: Children with diarrhoea receiving oral rehydration therapy. This indicator is the prevalence of children with diarrhoea who received oral rehydration therapy. It is the proportion of children aged 0—59 months who had diarrhoea and were treated with oral rehydration salts or an appropriate household solution.
The terms used for diarrhoea should cover the expressions used for all forms of diarrhoea, including bloody stools consistent with dysentery and watery stools, and should encompasses mothers' definitions as well as local terms. Diarrhoeal diseases remain one of the major causes of mortality among children under 5, accounting for 1.
As oral rehydration therapy is a critical component of effective management of diarrhoea, monitoring coverage with this highly cost—effective intervention indicates progress on an intermediate outcome indicator of the Global Nutrition Targets, prevalence of diarrhoea in children under 5 years of age. Global Nutrition Monitoring Framework: Operational guidance for tracking progress in meeting targets for Moderate and severe thinness, underweight, overweight, obesity.
The values for body mass index BMI are age-independent for adult populations and are the same for both genders. BMI may not, however, correspond to the same degree of fatness in different populations due, in part, to different body proportions. The health risks associated with increasing BMI are continuous, and the interpretation of BMI grading in relation to risk may differ for different populations.
Proportions of underweight in women aged years and of overweight in women aged 18 years or more are included as intermediate outcome indicators in the core set of indicators for the Global Nutrition Monitoring Framework.
BMI is a simple index of weight-to-height commonly used to classify underweight, overweight and obesity in adults. For example, an adult who weighs 58 kg and whose height is 1. Moderate and severe thinness: It has been linked to clear-cut increases in illness in adults studied in three continents and is therefore a further reasonable value to choose as a cut-off point for moderate risk.
The cut-off point of The proportion of the population with a low BMI that is considered a public health problem is closely linked to the resources available for correcting the problem, the stability of the environment and government priorities.
In some populations, the metabolic consequences of weight gain start at modest levels of overweight. The costs attributable to obesity are high, not only in terms of premature death and health care but also in terms of disability and a diminished quality of life. Low prevalence warning sign, monitoring required. Medium prevalence poor situation.
High prevalence serious situation. Very high prevalence critical situation. Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from to Obesity and other diet related chronic diseases, list of publications. Halt the rise in diabetes and obesity. Adolescent birth rate per 1, women aged years. The adolescent birth rate, technically known as the age-specific fertility rate provides a basic measure of reproductive health focusing on a vulnerable group of adolescent women.
The indicator adolescent birth rate per 1, women aged years is included as an intermediate outcome indicator in the core set of indicators for the Global Nutrition Monitoring Framework.
It is also referred to as the age-specific fertility rate for women aged There is substantial agreement in the literature that women who become pregnant and give birth very early in their reproductive lives are subject to higher risks of complications or even death during pregnancy and birth and their children are also more vulnerable.
Furthermore, women having children at an early age experience a curtailment of their opportunities for socio-economic improvement, particularly because young mothers are unlikely to keep on studying and, if they need to work, may find it especially difficult to combine family and work responsibilities.
The adolescent birth rate provides also indirect evidence on access to reproductive health since the youth, and in particular unmarried adolescent women, often experience difficulties in access to reproductive health care. Maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health. Adolescent sexual and reproductive health. Moderate and severe thinness, underweight, overweight, obesity What do these indicators tell us?
Overweight in school-age children and adolescents. This indicator reflects the percentage of school-age children and adolescents years who are classified as overweight based on age and sex specific values for body mass index BMI.
Overweight indicates excess body weight for a given height from fat, muscle, bone, water or a combination of these factors, whilst obesity is defined as having excess body fat. The immediate consequences of overweight and obesity in school-age children and adolescents include greater risk of asthma and cognitive impairment, in addition to the social and economic consequences for the child, its family and the society. In the long term, overweight and obesity in children increase the risk of obesity, diabetes, heart disease, some cancers, respiratory disease, mental health, and reproductive disorders later in life.
Furthermore, obesity and overweight track over the life course — an overweight adolescent girl is more likely to become an overweight woman and, thus, her baby is likely to have a heavier birth weight. Growth reference years. Commission on Ending Childhood Obesity. Infant and young child feeding. The recommendations for feeding infants and young children 6—23 months include: The caring practice indicators for infant and young child feeding available on the NLIS country profiles include: Early initiation of breastfeeding.
This indicator is the percentage of infants who are put to the breast within 1 hour of birth. Infants under 6 months who are exclusively breastfed. This indicator is the percentage of infants aged 0—5 months who are exclusively breastfed. It is the proportion of infants aged 0—5 months who are fed exclusively on breast milk and no other food or drink, including water.
The infant is however, allowed to receive ORS and drops and syrups containing vitamins, minerals and medicine. Infants aged 6—8 months who receive solid, semisolid or soft foods. It is defined as the proportion of infants aged 6—8 months who receive solid, semisolid or soft foods. Children aged 6—23 months who receive a minimum dietary diversity. This indicator is the percentage of children aged 6—23 months who receive a minimum dietary diversity.
As per revised recommendation by TEAM in June , dietary diversity is present when the diet contained five or more of the following food groups: Equus uses chelated minerals that are bio-available, proteinated trace minerals for improved absorption.
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