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Carbohydrate counting accuracy and blood glucose variability in adults with type 1 diabetes. Whatever your question or concerns, our world-class customer support team is delighted to help you! I checked my blood sugar and it was Accessed 13 August Another option for many people is referral to a comprehensive diabetes self-management education DSME program that includes instruction on nutrition therapy. Soft drink consumption and risk of developing cardiometabolic risk factors and the metabolic syndrome in middle-aged adults in the community.
Goals of nutrition therapy that apply to adults with diabetes
Further, dried kibble is almost completely unpalatable for the typical cat. This is not surprising; one would expect that this species would recognize high cereal foods as "not food. Few pet owners, including those adamantly opposed to the feeding of raw foods to their pets, would be so complacent about commercial dry pet foods if they witnessed the production and application of this ingredient.
Thus, cats are essentially "tricked" into the consumption of a food they would not ordinarily consume, through the application of tasty outer coatings. One is reminded of the application of candy coatings on the outside of children's breakfast cereal to enhance the consumption of relatively low nutritional-value breakfast foods.
Now, contrast the formulation and production of dry cat foods with the formulation and production of canned or "wet foods. Pates, even chunked, sliced, or grilled meats, go perfectly well into a sealed can that is then sterilized in a high-heat retort. Happily, high meat formulas are highly palatable for cats, who recognize such ingredients as appropriate foods for their nutritional needs, which they usually eat happily without additional palatability enhancers added.
This is quite different from the macronutrient profile of dry foods, which are slave to the food technology of extrusion and the resulting need for intense palatability enhancement with "sugar coatings" of fermented digest post production. The ingredients and macronutrients of the different forms of cat food are dictated by the requirements of food technology, not the science of feline nutrition. Many pet owners believe that commercial pet foods are safe and efficacious to feed to their pets because they have been "feeding trial tested" and shown to be complete and balanced by this method.
The AAFCO statement on many pet foods bears testament to the fact that the contents of the can or bag have undergone some kind of feeding trial that guarantees that the food in the container is good for your pet.
This statement is extremely misunderstood by most pet owners and misleads them into believing that only good can come of feeding the product on which this statement appears. To illustrate this problem, let's go back in recent history. In approximately , a young cardiology resident at the University of California at Davis by the name of Dr. Paul Pion noticed something rather interesting. One of his feline patients, a cat he was treating for congestive cardiomyopathy, had an extremely low serum taurine level.
Taurine is an essential amino acid in the cat meaning it cannot be synthesized in sufficient quantities by the cat to meet its ongoing needs and must be supplied in the diet , known to be required for proper eye and cardiac function in this and many other species.
Pion's patient was fed an exclusive diet of a "high quality" premium commercial canned cat food, which should have supplied all of the taurine this cat required. After all, the food was "feeding trial tested" and shown to be complete and balanced for all life stages in these feeding trials. Surely this cat's heart disease was not due to consumption of a taurine-deficient diet.
Over the months following his initial observation, Dr. Pion supplemented his original patient's diet with taurine and began to investigate other clinical cases of feline congestive cardiomyopathy. To his amazement, Dr. Pion discovered that virtually all of the cases he studied had low taurine levels in their bloodstream, and many of them improved dramatically, even returned to normal, when supplemented with taurine in addition to their regular diets, which were always canned commercial pet foods.
Most of these cats were fed diets that had been "feeding-trial-tested" and shown to be complete and balanced for the appropriate life stage by this method. How could foods produced by the "best" pet food manufacturers and tested according to the most stringent AAFCO guidelines be the direct cause of such pathologic deficiency in pet cats?
The answer, although not immediately evident, became clear over the first few months of Dr. The taurine in the implicated diets, often tested in the laboratory as adequate for the health of cats, was somehow not available to those cats when consumed in those diets. The processing of the canned formulations in the retort somehow "inactivated" the taurine contained in the foods so that it tested as adequate using laboratory methods, but in the "ultimate laboratory," the cat itself, the dietary taurine was not properly recognized and utilized.
If this were the case, however, why didn't the feeding trials of these foods disclose this terrible flaw? Because the vaunted feeding trials of which the companies and AAFCO are so proud are of such limited duration, usually no longer than 6 months, that only severe inadequacies and acute toxicities would ever be disclosed through them.
Further, had cats on a six-month feeding trial of a taurine-deficient diet developed congestive cardiomyopathy during the test period, it is extremely unlikely, prior to the problem discovered by Dr. Pion, that anyone would have recognized the condition as diet-related. Most cats would not become sufficiently deficient to develop overt clinical signs during the feeding trial. Thus, deficient diets were produced, feeding-trial-tested, and marketed for many years, causing the deaths of many cats, before a fortuitous turn of events and the keen observations of a young veterinarian allowed the problem to be identified and corrected.
The pet food companies and their "rigorous testing for safety and efficacy" allowed the development of a fatal disease in thousands of cats, and that had to be discovered and corrected through the efforts of an outsider who was not even a nutritionist. The "scientific teams" within the implicated companies themselves were stunned by the discovery.
The presently prevalent nutritional diseases of obesity and diabetes [ See Note 3 at bottom of page ] share stunning similarities with the taurine-deficiency disease of feline congestive cardiomyopathy. True enough, the disease associated with dietary taurine was a disease of nutrient deficiency, while diabetes and obesity in cats are diseases of nutrient excess.
Further, these diseases, and perhaps others yet to be uncovered in the future, are the result of an unfathomable failure by those most knowledgeable about the peculiar metabolic machinery and nutritional needs of the cat to properly consider those factors. By and large, the pet food industry has treated the cat like a "small dog," because it was expedient and seemed so harmless for so long. Please note that not all cats that consume substantial dry cat food become obese, or develop diabetes, or idiopathic cystitis, at least not during the length of their lives, whatever that might be.
Similarly, not all cats that consumed taurine-deficient canned foods in the s developed congestive cardiomyopathy, at least not before the link to canned foods was discovered and corrected. We know that as harmful as cigarette smoking clearly is for human beings, not every person that smokes cigarettes will develop cancer, or emphysema, or heart disease, at least not before some other cause of death intervenes. These facts do not diminish in the slightest the unavoidable conclusions we have come to about the harmfulness of cigarette smoking, and the dangerousness of nutritionally deficient or excessive diets.
Some people and animals are more resistant to environmental harms than others, but it is virtually impossible to tell which individuals these are before it is too late. Therefore, every individual in every susceptible population must be considered at risk. What is to be done about the present rampant feeding of carbohydrate-laden dry cat foods? Shouldn't those who are gaining financially from the present high level of commercial pet food demand and who have the expertise to formulate and produce truly healthful feline diets, do so?
Of course they should. The pet food companies that have set themselves up as the pet nutritional experts among us have the obligation to deliver the safety and efficacy they have been claiming for so long.
Unfortunately, without intense consumer pressure, that is highly unlikely to happen. All pet food companies have enormous investments in their current dry formulations and the long term purchase of ingredients that will make up those foods.
All have huge dry cat food plants and a customer base that they will not willingly convert to better types of food with smaller profit margins. Pion not discovered the taurine-deficiency connection to certain canned cat foods, and threatened the implicated companies with scathing public relations consequences if diet formulations were not immediately revamped and improved, we would still be treating congestive cardiomyopathy as a fatal disease of cats of "unknown etiology.
Pion's discovery and willingness to speak out loudly, feline congestive cardiomyopathy is essentially a historical disease today. If you worry about switching forms of food because you have been convinced that dry food is essential to good dental health for your cat, consider this: While the feeding of a crunchy kibble may have an intuitive appeal for dental health, the reality is that there are no scientific studies that prove dry foods provide better dental health throughout a cat's life than wet foods do.
In my practice, I have a majority of my patients consuming exclusively wet diets. My patients require no more regular dental care and experience no more disease of their teeth and gums than patients on other practices in which I have worked where dry food was the norm. There is no dental benefit from dry food that even begins to offset the terrible harm done from feeding the wrong metabolic fuel to our cats.
It is for us, all of us, to do as Dr. Pion did back in the late s. This article is the beginning of what I hope will become a groundswell of support to apply intense and constant pressure on the companies that supply our cat foods. I call for all of you to think long and hard about whether you really believe your cats are doing well on "fritos chips and breakfast cereal.
If you hesitate to seriously consider making a change from dry food because kibble is so convenient and easy to feed, please consider what this convenience is costing your cat. Until the veterinary profession becomes more knowledgeable about feline nutrition, and the pet food industry faces and corrects the defects within its present dry formulations, you are your cat's only real advocate for nutritional health.
This is because of their extremely abnormal macronutrient profiles for an obligatory carnivore. Other canned foods have high levels of indigestible fiber wood cellulose , supposedly because this slows the absorption of sugar and calories from the food in which it is included.
The foods do neither very well. High fiber diets, canned and dry, limit the digestion and absorption of many vital nutrients, especially in a species with a short gastrointestinal tract and limited capability to extract nutrients from vegetation.
They represent an irrational approach to meeting the nutritional needs of the overweight or diabetic cat and contain egregious amounts of simple carbohydrate, including carbohydrate and sugar from corn. This was believed to be the result of that company's fortuitous use of significantly greater amounts of fish in their canned cat food products than most other companies.
Fish is rich in taurine, and Iams' canned cat foods contained enough extra taurine to withstand harmful inactivation of that nutrient in the retort process. Further, the Iams Company more than any other has long insisted that the cat is a carnivore and should be fed as such.
This is clearly the right idea; unfortunately the Iams Company's dry foods are bursting with highly processed carbohydrate like every other company's. To properly feed an obligatory carnivore like the cat, one needs include not only adequate amounts of unique essential micronutrients like taurine, Vitamin A and arachidonic acid, but one needs also to include adequate levels of vital macronutrients like protein and fat, and exclude harmful levels of carbohydrate.
In short, one would need to feed a diet very like the one which provided the millennia of evolutionary pressures that produced today's domestic felines. No presently available dry cat food comes even close to this standard. Published with the permission of Dr. Hunger has been on the rise over the past three years, returning to levels from a decade ago. This reversal in progress sends a clear warning that more must be done and urgently if the Sustainable Development Goal of Zero Hunger is to be achieved by An estimated 78 million babies — or three in five — are not breastfed within the first hour of life, putting them at higher risk of death and disease and making them less likely to continue breastfeeding, say UNICEF and WHO in a new report.
Most of these babies are born in low- and middle-income countries. A preliminary analysis of selected legal provisions in those countries where complementary foods are listed as designated products in their Code-related legislation is also documented. Eliminating trans fat is key to protecting health and saving lives. Every year, trans fat intake leads to more than , deaths of people from cardiovascular disease.
REPLACE supports governments to ensure the prompt, complete, and sustained elimination of industrially-produced trans fat from the food supply. Saturated fatty acid and trans-fatty intake for adults and children. WHO Member States and all relevant stakeholders are invited to comment. WHO and UNICEF today issued new step guidance to increase support for breastfeeding in health facilities that provide maternity and newborn services.
This document should be useful to academic and research institutes, and groups and individuals who work on these indicators. This document is available in English, French, Spanish, and Russian. The Chinese and Arabic version of the report will also be available soon.
Skip to main content. The state of food security and nutrition in the world News release Read more about the report Watch the launch webcast.