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Recall that every access to a memory byte takes at least 4 cycles; that limitation is built right into the Every invocation of getc involves pushing a parameter, executing a call to the C library function, getting the parameter in the C library code , looking up information about the desired stream, unbuffering the next byte from the stream, and returning to the calling code. Without a market they cannot sell enough products to make money. Includes items such as amplifiers, speakers, handsets, reproducers, control panels, control -units, etc. The is internally a full bit processor, equivalent to an
For night flight, the fuel reserves must be extended to 45 minutes. In calculating fuel requirements, the pilot is required to make allowance for taxiing and foreseeable delays prior to takeoff, meteorological conditions, foreseeable air traffic routings and traffic delays, and, as is written in CAR It is illegal to refuel a private aircraft with the engine running, or while passengers are on board.
If a private pilot wishes to fly with passengers, he or she can only fly an aircraft category, class, or type that is endorsed on his licence. To fly with passengers, a pilot must have flown at least five takeoffs and landings in aircraft of the same category and class within the preceding six months. To fly with passengers at night, the required five takeoffs and landings must have been flown at night within the preceding six months.
A pilot is required to desist from flying when he is aware of acquired physical disabilities that make him unable to pass his medical. No person will fly while under the effect of a drug that compromises the safety of flight, while under the influence of alcohol, or within 8 hours of consuming an alcoholic beverage.
With spinal or general anaesthetics, a pilot should not fly until a doctor says it is safe to do so. With respect to local anaesthetics involving extensive procedures such as the removal of several wisdom teeth , a pilot should not fly for 24 hours. Wake turbulence is caused by wing tip vortices that are produced by the air pressure differential above and below the wing.
The vortex can produce structural loads as high as 10g. Gusts near thunderstorms can exceed 45 fps. The strongest vortices are generated by heavy weight, clean configuration, at slow speeds. Accordingly, the worst is a heavy jet during touchdown and takeoff phases. Helicopters produce dangerously concentrated vortices.
It takes 2 minutes for the strength of vortices to dissipate the smoother the air [non-turbulent], the slower the dissipation. Vortices tend to spread out at a speed of 5 KT. A 5 KT crosswind can therefore hold one of the vortices over the touchdown or takeoff area, or cause them to migrate to adjacent runways. Be aware but you need not memorize that a three-minute separation interval is applied by controllers in a non-radar environment to any aircraft that takes off following a heavy aircraft, or any light aircraft following a medium if.
In all cases, ATC tower controllers will advise affected pilots when the interval has been applied; for example,. To facilitate occasions when the threat of wake turbulence is reduced—as may be the case with a steady crosswind—pilots may waiver the applicable time spacing interval.
Extreme caution must be used when manoeuvring on the ground at airports where jet operations occur. As a rule, never taxi behind a jet aircraft unless you can be assured that the engines are not operating; if operating, the following are published distances that can be used for reference:. In the case of infants less than 2 years of age, the infant must be securely held in the arms of adult when seat belts are required to be worn.
The Pilot-in-command or a qualified pilot must remain in his seat belt during flight time. The following apply primarily to unpressurized aircraft, but are applicable to the cabin-pressure altitude of pressurized aircraft. The Pilot Operating Handbook, interception orders , and aircraft weight and balance report must also be on board. No person shall conduct a take-off in a power-driven aircraft for the purpose of day VFR flight unless it is equipped with.
Emergency checks must specify emergency operation of hydraulic, electrical, and mechanical systems, emergency operation of instruments and controls, engine inoperative procedures, and any other procedures necessary for aviation safety. All checks and emergency procedures must be performed and followed by the flight crew. All aircraft must have accessible in the cockpit a suitable, non-toxic, and readily available fire extinguisher.
Each crewmember excluding passengers must have access to a functioning timepiece and, when operating at night, a functioning flashlight. Except when undertaking flight within 25 nautical miles of the airport of departure where continuous radio contact with base station is possible for the duration of flight, no person can operate an aircraft without specified survival equipment. With respect to flight over water, a single-engine aircraft operating beyond gliding distance from shore must be equipped with one lifejacket for each individual on board.
If a single-engine aircraft is operated over water beyond nautical miles from a suitable emergency landing site, or if the aircraft is operated over water beyond a distance at which the same landing site cannot be reached within 30 minutes at the cruising speed specified in the flight plan or flight itinerary, the aircraft must be equipped with life raft sufficient in total rated capacity to accommodate all persons on board.
With respect to a multi-engine aircraft unable to maintain flight with any engine failed, the above NM or 30 minute above rule applies. In the case of multi-engine aircraft capable of maintaining flight with any engine failed, the distance is extended to NM and the time is extended to 60 minutes. Prior to beginning a flight, the pilot-in-command must be familiar with all available information appropriate to the intended flight.
Beginning a flight, the pilot-in-command must be familiar with all available weather information appropriate to the intended flight. No person shall create a hazard to persons or property by dropping an object from the aircraft during flight. No person shall operate an aircraft in proximity to another aircraft that may create a risk of collision. An aircraft engine shall not be started unless a competent person occupies the pilot seat, or the aircraft is prevented from moving forward.
No person shall leave an aircraft engine running unless a competent person is at the controls or, where no person is on board, precautions have been made to prevent the aircraft from moving forward and the aircraft is not unattended.
A pilot must land when instructed to do so by an air traffic control unit, peace officer, customs or immigration officer, officer of the Armed Forces, or person authorized by the Minister. All crewmembers shall, during flight time, obey the orders, instruction, and commands of the Pilot-in-command. When two aircraft are approaching head-on, each shall alter course to the right.
When two aircraft are converging, the one on the right has the right of way, but must take whatever action necessary to avoid collision. Based on manoeuvrability, aircraft have priority of right of way in the following order: Fixed or free balloons, gliders, airships, and fixed or rotary wing aeroplanes. The 10 Most-contravened Canadian Aviation Regulations. This is required if you should land at Chilliwack, for example. The registry records the aircraft and pilot information, as well as the arrival and departure time of the aircraft, as well as its proposed destination.
In the event that an aircraft is missing, the registries will be used during the search response, so it is important to use them properly. The content of this website is protected by copyright and reproduction in whole or in part is only authorized with the written consent of David L Parry, Chief Flying Instructor, Langley Flying School. Instructor Evaluations Student Feedback: Aircraft Improvements Student Feedback: Facilities Improvements Student Feedback: Airports Two types of airports exist in Canada: NORDO no radio aircraft operate freely at uncontrolled airports.
Airspace Classification The geographic classification of Canadian Airspace is specified in the Designated Airspace Handbook, something that is rarely seen in pilot bags, but which is available should detailed reference to airspace dimensions be required.
The characteristic of the seven classes may be summarized as follows: Controlled airspace referred to as High Level Controlled Airspace whereby all aircraft must have a clearance. Only IFR flight is permitted. Altimeters are set to Controlled airspace referred to as Low Level Controlled Airspace whereby aircraft must have a clearance. Altimeters are set to local pressure settings.
Transponders are required with Mode C altitude encoding capability. Altimeter must have been tested within last 24 months. Adequate navigation equipment required for flight planned route. The Pilot-in-command has the responsibility to avoid other aircraft, maintain terrain and obstruction clearance, and remain in VFR weather. While operating in Class C, aircraft must be equipped for two-way radio communication, and must maintain a continuous listening watch. Class D Specifically defined airspace around designated airports described as terminal control areas and associated control zones.
While operating in Class D, aircraft must be equipped for two-way radio communication, and must maintain a continuous listening watch. Class E Specifically defined airspace normally associated with airways, control area extensions, and transition areas, including designated airports without an operating control tower.
Class F Airspace in which special activities take place, which may or may not restrict air traffic. The type of Class F airspace is indicated in the identifier published in charts, of which the following is a typical example: Class F areas designated CYA are associated with special flight activity and caution should be used.
Others are acrobatics A , test flight areas F , military training M , hang gliding H , parachuting P , and soaring by gliders S. Unless otherwise specified, the radio frequency VHF and LF Airways Airways are the highways in the sky and interconnect major airports using centerlines established by radio navigation aids, traditionally ground-based, but now sky-based, through the use of satellite transmitters GNSS.
Control Zones Control Zones surround specified airports indicated on charts. Priority Radio Communications There are three types of priority radio communication that are recognized which are related to safety in air operations.
Fuel Requirements Taking into account flying conditions, a VFR flight must have fuel sufficient to fly during the day to the intended place of landing, plus an additional 30 minutes at normal cruising speeds. Alcohol No person will fly while under the effect of a drug that compromises the safety of flight, while under the influence of alcohol, or within 8 hours of consuming an alcoholic beverage.
Anaesthetics With spinal or general anaesthetics, a pilot should not fly until a doctor says it is safe to do so. Wake Turbulence Wake turbulence is caused by wing tip vortices that are produced by the air pressure differential above and below the wing.
During takeoff, the vortices are generated as soon as the jet rotates. Further Readings Wake Turbulence Regulations In Canada, aircraft are classified with respect to wake turbulence as per the following: Group Description Heavy All aircraft certified for a maximum takeoff weight of , lbs. Medium Aircraft certified for a maximum takeoff weight of between 12, and , lbs. Light Aircraft certified for a takeoff weight up to 12, lbs.
In all cases, ATC tower controllers will advise affected pilots when the interval has been applied; for example, Tower: When holding near a runway, anticipate wake turbulence. When cleared to take off after a landing large aircraft, plan to become airborne after its nose-down point. In flight Avoid flight below and behind large aircraft. Landing When cleared to land behind a departing large aircraft, plan to touchdown before the rotation point.
When cleared to land behind a landing large aircraft, remain above its flight path, and plan to touch-down after its nose-down point. Plan approach to avoid vortices generated by aircraft operating on parallel or cross runways. Jet Blast Hazard Extreme caution must be used when manoeuvring on the ground at airports where jet operations occur. As a rule, never taxi behind a jet aircraft unless you can be assured that the engines are not operating; if operating, the following are published distances that can be used for reference: The pilot has sole responsibility for jet blast avoidance.
The Pilot Operating Handbook must be accessible to the pilot at his or her station. No person shall conduct a take-off in a power-driven aircraft for the purpose of night VFR flight, unless it is equipped with the equipment referred to in paragraphs All aircraft must have a first aid kit. Be 30 Beginning a flight, the pilot-in-command must be familiar with all available weather information appropriate to the intended flight.
A distressed aircraft has landing priority. Check the tire for cuts, wear, and proper inflation. Check the engine baffle seals. With the pitot heat switch ON, the pitot head will be hot to the touch. After these checks are complete, the master switch and all electrical switches should be turned OFF. Turn ON the master switch and the electric fuel pump. Move the mixture control lever to full RICH and engage the starter by rotating the magneto switch clockwise.
Check both oil temperature and oil pressure. The temperature may be low for some time if the engine is being run for the first time of the day. The trim should be set slightly aft of neutral, with the exact setting determined by the loading of the airplane. The best angle of climb may be obtained at 63 KIAS. At lighter than gross weight these speeds are reduced somewhat. The seat belts and shoulder harnesses should be fastened and the inertia reel checked.
The radios should be turned OFF, and the engine stopped by disengaging the mixture control lock and pulling the mixture control back to idle cut-off. An approaching stall is indicated by a stall warning horn which is activated between five and ten KTS above stall speed. Mild airframe buffeting and gentle pitching may also precede the stall. No determination has been made by the Federal Aviation Adminis- tration that the noise levels of this airplane are or should be acceptable or unacceptable for operation at, into, or out of, any airport.
Introduction - Performance and Flight Planning Performance information associated with those optional systems and equipment that require handbook supplements is provided by Section 9 Supplements. Each chart includes its own example to show how it is used.
The information contained in this Section 5. All of the existing conditions at the departure and destination airport must be acquired, evaluated and maintained throughout the flight. The desired cruise pressure altitude and corresponding cruise outside air temperature values are the first variables to be con- sidered in determining the climb components from the Fuel, Time and Distance to Climb graph Figure Now, subtract the values obtained from the field conditions from the values obtained from the cruise conditions to find the true fuel, time and distance values needed for the flight plan.
JULY 1, JUNE 9, a JUNE 9, Weight and Balance Data and Record Weight and Balance Determination for Flight Following this is the method for computing takeoff weight and C. This data is supplied by Figure Then open all fuel drains until all remain- ing fuel is drained. Operate engine on each tank until all undrainable fuel is used and engine stops. Then add the unusable fuel 2.
Deduct the tare, if any, from each reading. Refer to Leveling paragraph 6. These figures apply only to the specific airplane serial number and registration number shown.
It has four place seating and a baggage capacity of two hundred pounds. The stabilator incorporates an anti-servo tab which improves longitudinal stability and provides longitudinal trim.
This tab moves in the same direction as the stabilator, but with increased travel. The flight controls actuate the control surfaces through a cable system.
The horizontal surface stabilator is of the flying tail design with a trim tab mounted on the trailing edge. The flaps are balanced and spring loaded to return to the retracted up position. A control handle, which is located between the two front seats on the control console Figure , extends the flaps by the use of a control cable. Each tank has an individual drain at the bottom, inboard rear corner. A fuel strainer, located on the lower left front of the fire wall, has a drain which is accessible from outside the nose section.
The annunciator panel also includes a vacuum inop. The annunciator panel lights are provided only This includes the directional and attitude gyros when installed. The system consists of an engine driven vacuum pump, a vacuum regulator, a filter and the necessary plumbing. In the event of any gauge variation from the norm, the pilot should have a mechanic check the system to prevent possible damage to the system components or eventual failure of the system.
The artificial horizon and directional gyro are vacuum operated and are located in the center of the left hand instrument panel. Pitot and static pressure are picked up by a pitot head installed on the bottom of the left wing and carried through pitot and static lines within the wing and fuselage to the gauges on the instrument panel.
The amount of heat can be regulated with the controls located on the far right side of the instrument panel.
To keep the finish attractive, economy size spray cans of touch-up paint are available from Piper Dealers. The OFF position is selected when the transmitter is installed at the factory and the switch should remain in that position whenever the unit is installed in the airplane. Piper takes a continuing interest in having owners get the most efficient use from their airplane and keeping it in the best mechanical condition. Consequently, Piper, from time to time, issues service releases including Service Bulletins, Service Letters, Service Spares Letters, and others relating to the airplane.
Manual contains appropriate forms, and all inspection procedures should be complied with by a properly trained, knowledgeable, and qualified mechanic at a Piper Authorized Service Center or a reputable repair shop. Piper Aircraft Corporation cannot accept responsibility for the continued airworthiness of any This inspection, if performed properly, provides a good check of the internal condition of the engine.
To be accurate, induction air filters must be cleaned or changed regularly, and oil samples must be taken and sent in at regular intervals. Major alterations accomplished in accordance with Advisory Circular