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Approximately 60, blood components are transfused in the affiliated teaching hospitals each year. Laboratory management and quality improvement issues are also included in the training. Fellows have the opportunity to participate in clinical and basic research in addition to diagnostic cases. The Molecular Pathology Laboratory combines single gene tests and next-generation sequencing, with a focus on precision medicine for oncology, but also provides exposure to inherited and infectious disease. The fellowship is accredited by the ACGME, and is designed to meet the needs of individuals interested in a career in either academic pathology or private practice. Located in one of the country's largest metropolitan areas, the KY OCME also conducts many cases associated with urban areas. Two crime laboratories representing two jurisdictions serve the metropolitan area.

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This program provides training in diagnostic GI and liver pathology including liver transplant and pancreatic pathology. The program provides ample resources including a generous annual educational stipend and support for clinical and translational research.

Off service time 2 days each week is given to the fellow for research activities and conference preparation. Maha Guindi, MD Applications: Hematopathology Fellowship Opening for Program Description The Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine offers a one-year fellowship in hematopathology.

Cedars-Sinai is a bed tertiary care center in which the Hematopathology Laboratory offers a large volume of tests and provides a state of the art hematopathology laboratory including color flow cytometry, FISH, immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, hemoglobinopathy by HPLC, molecular hematopathology, targeted sequencing analysis by NGS studies and special coagulation including extensive experience with thromboelestrogram TEG.

Fellow Responsibilities and Translational Research Opportunities There is abundant hematopathology material with over 1, bone marrows and lymphoma cases from adult and pediatric patients per year.

Training includes experience in flow cytometry, immunophenotyping, immunoperoxidase techniques, molecular diagnostics, and coagulation. Stipends Commensurate with the applicant's year of postgraduate training.

Program Director Serhan Alkan, M. Applications Please visit our website for complete checklist and more information. Renal Pathology Fellowship Opening for , The Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine offers a one-year fellowship in renal pathology. In addition to light, immunofluorescence and electron microscopy, IHC and molecular studies are performed as appropriate.

Cedars-Sinai has a large active transplant center, and there are ample opportunities for clinical and translational research in transplant and native renal disease. Training includes graduated responsibility in the diagnosis and reporting of renal biopsies, including performing electron microscopy, and interacting with nephrologists. The fellow is expected to participate in regular renal pathology conferences and participate in resident education during their required renal pathology rotation.

Participation in at least one investigative project is expected during the year. The Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine offers a one-year fellowship in Surgical Pathology with emphasis on diagnostic Dermatopathology and Musculoskeletal Pathology. The Division of Anatomic Pathology is a very busy, high-volume complex surgical pathology practice. This program provides training in wide variety of cases, with access to 50, in-house general surgical specimens and 15, in-house and outreach skin specimens annually.

The Fellow will be integrated in a graduated responsibility manner into all aspects of the clinical practice of Surgical Pathology on a daily basis, including diagnostic interpretation and reporting, presentation at intramural, local and international conferences USCAP , communication with clinical teams, and research. The fellow is encouraged to participate in ongoing investigative projects in the area of Dermatopathology and Musculoskeletal Pathology.

Commensurate with the applicant's year of postgraduate training Program Director: Wonwoo Shon, DO Applications: The Norris Cancer and Keck Hospitals provide extensive exposure to cancer cytopathology. The candidate must have completed 3 years of Anatomic Pathology training or 4 years of Anatomic and Clinical Pathology training by the beginning of the fellowship training.

The candidate must have a California Medical License by July 1st of their training year. The fellow's primary responsibilities include signing out of surgical cases, frozen section diagnosis and occasional autopsies.

The program offers excellent experience in fine needle aspiration. With UCLA residents and an attending staff of five, there are many opportunities for interacting with staff and direct teaching. In addition, the county hospital provides exposure to many unusual and rare cases. There is also ample opportunity for attending and organizing specialty conferences.

Research and study time is available, including elective time in selected subspecialty areas. This position is open to applicants who have completed their training in AP and are Board eligible or certified. A California license is a requirement. Are commensurate with the resident's level of training. Prefer applications before December for the following July.

Inquiries should be directed to: At Stanford, we offer a dedicated Genitourinary Pathology Fellowship 1 position per year, pending ACGME accreditation that will provide in-depth training in GU pathology with the goal of becoming a specialist in the field.

The Stanford Genitourinary Pathology Service is rich with both routine GU pathology and advanced consultative material to learn from. Graduated responsibility opportunities include a Junior Attending rotation, presenting at GU tumor boards, teaching opportunities such as departmental fellow-led teaching conferences , and service as a point person and consultant on GU-pathology-related issues.

Elective and research time can be used to pursue additional subspecialty training in other areas such as GYN, GI, or renal pathology or to work on research projects. Departmental resources and support are available for clinicopathologic and translational research projects. We offer a one-year GU fellowship that provides advanced, focused, and intensive training in diagnostic genitourinary pathology: Please fill out the application form http: The program is designed to give a broad experience in diagnostic hematology and in laboratory hematology.

The fellow in hematopathology will gain experience and expertise in the processing and interpretation of peripheral blood smears, bone marrow aspirates and biopsies and lymph nodes. Since hematopathology is primarily a subspecialty, based in the laboratory, exposure to a variety of modern diagnostic techniques and the operation of a laboratory is required. This includes familiarity with a full range of standard coagulation measures, immunopathology, hemoglobin analysis, molecular biology, special histochemistry, cytogenetics, hematology instrumentation, quality control and laboratory management.

Training in this program will encompass studies relevant to hematopathology with flow cytometry, electron microscopy and surface marker techniques. The Program Director will select from resident applicants preferably who have had four or more years of training with two years anatomic pathology and two years clinical pathology experience; or three years clinical pathology experience with eligibility to take CP Boards. Completed applications consist of the following and must include all gaps of time regardless of professional or personal: Schmidt at hs-pathprograms ucdavis.

For additional information, please visit our website at: Engage with clinical and informatics faculty in multiple specialties throughout UC Davis Health. Pursue learning projects in collaboration with industry and UC Davis Health. Length of fellowship is two years; however, applicants interested in pursuing another ACGME-approved fellowship within the department cytopathology, hematopathology can integrate the clinical informatics training, and complete both fellowships within two years rather than three.

MD or DO degree from an appropriately accredited institution. To initiate the application process, please submit CV and three letters of recommendation to: Program Coordinator Anna G. Hematopathology Fellowship Openings for and The Department of Pathology at the University of California, Irvine offers a one-year accredited Fellowship position in Hematopathology. The Program is designed to provide comprehensive training in diagnostic hematopathology and laboratory hematology including morphologic evaluation of peripheral blood smears, body fluids, bone marrow, lymph nodes and other tissue, performance of bone marrow procedure, interpretation of laboratory hematology, coagulation, flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, chromosomal and molecular cytogenetics and molecular diagnostics.

The fellow is also provided with the learning opportunities at Children's Hospital of Orange County for pediatric hematopathology and NeoGenomics laboratories for cytogenetics and molecular diagnostics. The fellow participates with faculty mentors to gain experience in laboratory management, teaching medical students, residents and fellows, and developing and conducting scholarly and research activities in the broad field of hematopathology.

A California medical license is required at the beginning of their fellowship. The salary is comparable to that of residents of this institution with equivalent years of postdoctoral training.

The Gastrointestinal Pathology Fellowship at UCSD is designed to provide rigorous diagnostic training with the opportunity for graduated, independent sign-out responsibilities for gastrointestinal, hepatic and pancreaticobiliary surgical pathology cases. The program takes advantage of USCD's large volume of diverse cases with a considerable proportion of high-complexity and esoteric cases, including but not limited to the categories of neoplastic and non-neoplastic GI mucosal biopsies and resections, liver explants, medical liver biopsies including transplant biopsies, pancreatic surgicals and outside consultation cases.

Areas of expertise are myriad and include inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, fatty liver disease, liver transplant pathology and a variety of neoplastic diseases, including pancreatic cancer. To further strengthen training in academic gastrointestinal pathology, each Fellow is required to complete at least one clinicopathologic research project clinical, translational or basic science related to gastrointestinal disease and will have close mentorship from the faculty.

Currently, the program supports one Fellow per year. The position is a 12 month commitment. The ideal candidate for the Fellowship is proactive, motivated, and demonstrates the ability to work well with a diverse team; has a great sense of humor, positive mental attitude, strong work ethic and superb communication skills; and finally, demonstrates diagnostic rigor with attention to detail and has a record of academic interest and achievement.

Alexandra Murtha, Program Coordinator Email: This position will fall under the supervision of Dr. Oluwole Fadare, Director of the Surgical Pathology Fellowship, and will include the option for months of general surgical pathology, as desired. Surgical pathology fellows at UCSD help provide continuity of clinical care by previewing all cases and provide preliminary diagnoses to clinicians. They supervise the gross room and teach residents rotating on surgical pathology.

The position is structured for graduated responsibility to the level of junior faculty. Each fellow takes weeks of call as acting attending on Surgical Pathology service.

This will depend on the goals of the fellow and needs of the program. Please submit application materials via email no later than September 30, to include: Interested applicants should submit material via email to amurtha ucsd. During this time, the fellow will have increasing levels of responsibility commensurate with level of performance.

Substantial emphasis is also placed on the integration of surgical pathology with Cytopathology. The fellowship offers opportunities for teaching pathology residents and medical students as well as the opportunity to investigate any one of a number of research projects during the year. Diagnostic, research and teaching skills are emphasized in this academic environment. California Medical License required. Curriculum vitae, personal statement, completed standardized CAP application and three letters of reference Program Director Info: Please submit your application materials no later than September 15th for interview consideration.

The overall goal of this one year fellowship is to prepare trainees for a successful career in molecular pathology. At the time of completion of the fellowship, trainees will be equipped with the knowledge and skills necessary to assume the directorship of a clinical molecular pathology laboratory and to continue with a pattern of lifelong learning in this field.

During the course of the program, MGP fellows will participate in the day-to-day operation of molecular genetic pathology laboratories performing and interpreting a variety of clinical tests. Fellows entering the program as pathologists will additionally gain experience with the diagnosis, management, treatment, and counseling of patients with genetic disorders during rotations through Medical Genetics clinics, while fellows entering as medical geneticists will gain exposure to surgical pathology and autopsy pathology via a rotation through the surgical pathology service.

In addition, trainees will attend didactic sessions with the supervising Medical Staff, courses in Medical Genetics, journal clubs, and laboratory and clinical conferences. Fellows are highly encouraged and expected to perform at least one research project of their own choosing with the guidance and assistance of one or more faculty members in the Department of Pathology.

Must qualify for licensure in California. Please submit the following documents to Program Director, Dr. September 15, [ ]. Please submit application materials via email no later than September 15, to include: Cytopathology Fellowship Opening for The fellow also works with pathology residents rotating in cytopathology, and with a staff of exceptional cytotechnologists. In addition to the large volume of daily cases, the fellow has access to an exhaustive cytopathology library and glass slide study cases.

The laboratory processes over , Paps annually and uses both ThinPrep and Surepath technologies. It receives over 7, non-gyn specimens, including over 2, FNAs.

Upon completion of the program, the fellow is well prepared for a cytopathology career in either an academic or private practice setting. The Department of Pathology at Hartford Hospital sponsors three advanced-level one- year fellowships in surgical pathology. The Division of Anatomic Pathology represents an extensive training resource based on over 50, surgical accessions. The program features, in addition to the general surgical pathology rotations, opportunities for extensive experience in all subspecialty areas.

The fellow program is structured to include 9-months of service responsibility and 3 months of elective rotation. The surgical pathology fellow under direct supervision of attending pathologists is part of a team approach to signing out surgical pathology cases.

Along with residents and pathology attendings the fellows perform frozen sections and gross specimens. The fellows are expected to assume the role of team leader by managing overflow. They independently preview slides before sign out with the attending staff.

Experience in immunohistochemistry and molecular pathology and other subspecialities are available through elective rotations. Opportunities for teaching at the student and resident levels are available as are opportunities for presentation of diagnostic material at clinical pathological conferences.

Investigative work and clinical-pathologic research activities are encouraged and resources are readily available. Fellowship appointments are effective July 1 of each academic year. Inquires regarding applications should be addressed to: Box Hartford, CT Telephone: Breast Pathology Fellowship one position per year Accepting applications for Lee Moffitt Cancer Center MCC is a one-year fellowship designed to provide extensive exposure to diagnostic, prognostic and theranostic breast pathology as well as multidisciplinary management of breast disease.

The fellow will participate in intraoperative gross examinations of breast specimens, intraoperative evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes, sign out of cases, and breast multidisciplinary tumor board discussions. The fellow will also have weeks of clinical rotations through the breast medical oncology and radiation oncology clinics as well as surgical oncology including OR observership.

The fellow will actively participate in teaching pathology residents, surgical oncology fellows and visiting international physicians. The fellow will have dedicated research time and will be required to be involved in departmental basic and translational research activities and contribute to publishing abstracts and peer-reviewed articles.

In addition to the large number and the complexity of cases, a great asset of this program is the outstanding faculty as well as the in-house molecular diagnostics. The integrated multidisciplinary practice model enhanced with molecular pathology and personalized medicine programs well prepare the graduates to practice Breast pathology in the changing world of precision medicine Requirements: Commensurate with level of post graduate training. We will start accepting applications immediately for AY The Department of Anatomic Pathology at the H.

Opportunity exists to enhance the diagnostic and clinical correlative skills and competency of the fellow in order to be able to pursue a successful career in the academic, community hospital, and practice settings. The fellow will have eight months of clinical service, including consultation service and surgical bench, and teaching responsibilities.

Four months will be dedicated to the following rotations: Case material includes biopsies, routine specimens, review cases and greater than 1, outside expert consultation cases per year. The program has a preference for candidates who are already board certified. You can read more about Moffitt's fellowships at https: Our fellowship provides the successful candidate an opportunity to pursue translational research in personalized cancer care. Duties will include advanced molecular analysis including ISH, image analysis, molecular pathology, and next generation genomics.

There will be ample participation in biobanking, retrospective specimen review, TMA construction, and opportunities to learn and participate in translational studies including biomarker intensive clinical trials. Successful candidates will be Florida medical licensed or eligible, board certified or board-eligible, and have completed an ACGME-accredited Anatomic Pathology residency. The program is based primarily at the Moffitt Cancer Center MCC and is designed to provide training in all aspects of tumor pathology.

The fellow will be involved in subspecialty sign out rotations on a monthly basis for nine months and three months of elective in all subspecialty areas, including research and Molecular Pathology. The elective time can also be devoted to one subspecialty area. This fellowship will include the gross inspection, frozen section interpretation as well as complete evaluation of the surgical and consult cases assigned to the fellow and under direct supervision of the faculty members.

The fellow will actively participate in the teaching of medical students, pathology residents, and visiting international physicians. Fellows are required to be involved in departmental basic and translational research activities and contribute to publishing abstracts and peer reviewed papers. This fellowship program has a year history and has trained many pathologists who are now in leadership positions of various practice settings. In addition to the large number and complexity of cases, a great asset of this program is the outstanding faculty who are experts in their perspective subspecialty with national and international recognition.

The integrated multidisciplinary practice model enhanced with molecular pathology and personalized medicine programs well prepare the graduates to practice surgical pathology in the changing world of precision medicine. We strive to train independent hematopathologists to acquire state of the art diagnostic skills and clinical research knowledge, and to foster the pursuit of academic or specialty practice careers.

The structure of our one-year clinical fellowship provides one core year of training in diagnostic hematopathology to meet eligibility for the subspecialty certification in Hematology given by the American Board of Pathology. The fellows will become proficient in evaluation of hematopathologic materials by exposure to approximately 5, in-house and consultation bone marrows, flow cytometry analyses, 1, in-house and consultation lymph nodes, 1, fine needle aspirates of lymph nodes, and 5, peripheral blood smears and body fluids yearly.

Application deadline is January for AY We also consider excellent candidates if the positions unfilled by then. Submit application and supporting documents to: Cytopathology Fellowship Position The program provides advanced and intensive training in all areas of cytopathology including gynecological pathology, non-gynecological cytology, and fine needle aspiration FNA. Additionally, the fellows will have hands-on experience in ultrasound guided FNA of superficial masses of the head and neck.

Our fellowship faculty includes five pathologists who are American Board of Pathology -certified in cytopathology. We currently review more than 6, non-gynecological cytology specimens, including approximately 2, FNAs and over gynecological specimens Thin-layer preparation pap tests per year. Fellows are expected to participate in teaching and related interdepartmental conferences. Opportunities for research activities are available throughout the program. Applicant Requirements Successful fellowship candidates must be eligible for certification or certified in Anatomic, or Anatomic and Clinical Pathology, by the American Board of Pathology.

Applicants are required to have passed all three steps of the United States Medical Licensing Examination. Applications Completed application packets must be received by September 30, , and must include: Please send completed packets to: Box Gainesville, FL Email: Margo Kramer, Fellowship Coordinator Email: Surgical Pathology Fellowship - The University of Florida Department of Pathology, Immunology and Laboratory Medicine offers a comprehensive one-year fellowship in surgical pathology that provides advanced and intensive training in diagnostic surgical pathology.

The non-ACGME-accredited Surgical Pathology Fellowship at the University of Florida provides fellows with the opportunity for advanced training and in-depth experience in different facets of surgical pathology with particular interest in Gastrointestinal and Liver, Genitourinary, Breast and Gynecologic pathology. It also prepares them for a career in either academics or private practice. A large volume of surgical and consultation material provides an opportunity for the development of proficiency in the diagnosis of neoplastic and benign diseases, as well as transplant pathology.

Fellows will have the opportunity for graduated sign-out responsibilities, including intraoperative consultations. Successful fellowship candidates must be certification-eligible or certified in anatomic, or anatomic and clinical pathology, by the American Board of Pathology.

Applicant Requirements Successful fellowship candidates must be certification-eligible or certified in anatomic, or anatomic and clinical pathology, by the American Board of Pathology.

Applicants are required to have passed all three , steps of the United States Medical Licensing Examination. Applications Completed application packets must be received by December 1, , and must include a: Interviews for the fellowship will be completed by March 1, Electronic submission of fellowship application materials is preferred.

Send completed packets to: David Hernandez Gonzalo, M. Box Gainesville, FL [ ]. The program is designed to provide a quality experience in the broad discipline of blood banking and transfusion medicine. Our curriculum provides the fellow with individual mentorship and guidance by faculty with expertise in transfusion service, apheresis, blood banking, infectious disease testing, stem cell therapy, immunology and transplant serology.

Shands Jacksonville Medical Center SJMC is a bed level 1 trauma center with a level 2 neonatal intensive care unit and an active cardiac surgery program. Please send inquires to email for specific details: We are committed to producing graduates capable of entry into academic or private practice and promoting a multidisciplinary approach to breast health care.

Program Director Shahla Masood, M. Step 3 is also a requirement. Early application is encouraged. Number of Positions 1 Required Documentation Once applicants have submitted their standardized CAP application, they will need to send the following documents in order to be considered for a fellowship position: These letters should be addressed to Shahla Masood, M.

Program Director and Chair, Department of Pathology. The program focuses exclusively on gynecological cytology, non-gynecological cytology, and fine needle aspiration biopsy cytology. Weekly didactic and microscopic conferences, monthly lectures, as well as a bi-monthly journal club supplement this training.

During this period, the fellow is engaged in the examination of the cytopathologic material submitted to the Service under the supervision of the attending staff. The program also includes participation in the Intraoperative Cytology Consultation Service. Step 3 is a requirement as well as eligibility for medical license in the state of Florida.

Number of Positions 2 Required documentation Once applicants have submitted their applications, they will need to send the following documents in order to be considered for a fellowship position: These letters should be addressed to Shahla Masood, MD.

This must include dates of training and be signed by the institution's program director or chairman or training completion certificates. Stipend and Maintenance The stipend is commensurate with the year of the applicant's postgraduate training. The Breast and Gynecologic pathology fellowship is a one-year, ACGME-approved position designed to provide advanced in-depth training in Breast and Gynecologic pathology from three major institutions, including a multidisciplinary cancer center, tertiary care county and private hospitals, as well as multiple primary care satellite clinics.

In addition, the curriculum includes core training in Laboratory Management and Pathology Informatics. Elective rotations are available with opportunities for clinical and translational research. The fellows are primarily responsible for the consultative services and the multidisciplinary clinical-pathological conferences for Breast and GYN Oncology.

See Pathology Residency Program for Hospital details. The Breast and Gynecologic pathology services signs out approximately 11, surgical specimens per year. Applications should be submitted along with curriculum vitae, personal statement, photo and three letters of recommendation to the Fellowship Program Director and copy the Fellowship Program Coordinator. Fellowship Program Director Carmen R.

The location of our laboratory within the Department of Pathology provides ready access to a wealth of teaching material and two large libraries which offer unique patient care perspectives and research-related services. A large collection of glass slides and medical photographs is available to fellows and residents. The pediatric pathology fellow is involves in every pediatric autopsy with emphasis in the more complicated cases.

The fellow assumes the daily sign-out responsibilities under faculty supervision. The fellow may rotate in other pediatric hospitals as elective rotation. The fellow is strongly encouraged to publish case reports and series of pediatric patients during the fellowship. The Pediatric Pathology fellow is encouraged to attend the consensus conference at the multiheaded microscope.

The fellow is also encouraged to teach medical students several laboratories throughout the year with gross organs including congenital heart disease, cystic renal diseases, pediatric pulmonary pathology, etc. Applications should be sent to: The ACGME-accredited program provides extensive training in all areas of Cytopathology, including gynecologic and non-gynecologic specimens as well as performance and interpretation of fine needle aspiration biopsies.

The fellow is required to conduct research and expected to bring to completion at least one research project upon graduation. There is strong departmental and institutional support for research and additional education funding will be available for the fellow to attend or present at national conferences.

The fellow is required to attend weekly educational conferences and involved in the education of pathology residents during electives in Cytopathology as well as surgical oncology fellows during their 1 month rotation. This is a premier cytopathology fellowship program. In addition to the large number and complexity of cases, another great advantage of this program is the faculty to fellow ratio of Faculty are experts in their perspective fields with national and international recognition.

Many test books and book chapters are edited or authored by our faculty and trainees. For the past 10 years all of our fellows have passed the Cytopathology board successfully and are practicing as Cytopathologists in an academic setting, VA hospital, community hospital or large laboratories.

Many of them receive institutional or national awards. The graduates stated that they had extra niche in pancreatic cytology, intraoperative cytological evaluation of sentinel lymph node of breast cancer, and bone and soft tissue cytology. They also have additional exposure to performing fine needle aspiration biopsy of thyroid.

Board certified candidates who have completed a surgical pathology fellowship are preferred. We are currently accepting applications for AY until September 30, The Department of Pathology invites applications for a one year fellowship in surgical pathology. Based in a university health care system which includes the bed Medical Center, the Critical Care Center housing a county regional trauma center, and the bed Children's Hospital of Georgia, the program provides advanced training and graduated responsibilities in diagnostic surgical pathology.

The laboratory examines about 14, surgical specimens using up to date CAP protocols, and immunohistochemical and molecular work up; and about 1, frozen sections per year. Responsibilities include preliminary diagnosis of all cases, frozen section interpretation including hot-seat, and preview of cases on consult services with appropriate supervision by faculty.

The fellow is expected to present at interdepartmental tumor boards, and participate in the training of anatomic pathology residents. Educational activities include didactic conferences, unknown case conferences, monthly journal clubs, evidence-based conferences, and case presentations. The department provides ample opportunities for scholarly activities and collaborations in all areas of surgical pathology.

The faculty includes board certified specialists in most areas of anatomic pathology such as dermatopathology, hematopathology, neuropathology, cytopathology, and molecular pathology. Other available subspecialties include head and neck, thyroid, renal, gastrointestinal, gynecologic, and genitourinary pathology. The department has a close relationship with the Georgia Cancer Center, which provides many opportunities for basic and translational research, as well as the adjacent Charlie Norwood VA Medical Center.

Augusta, one of the largest cities in Georgia, is located on the south bank of the Savannah River midway between the Great Smokey Mountains and the Atlantic Ocean. It is a growing and thriving city with a metropolitan- area population of around ,, and recently ranked the second most favorable place to live in Georgia. The city has an active cultural life including symphony and ballet organizations, a choral society, and theatre groups.

Nearby Clarks Hill Lake has 1, miles of shoreline for recreation; and the Atlantic Coast and the Great Smokey Mountains are three hours away by automobile. Augusta is world- renowned as the home of the Masters Golf Tournament. American Board of Pathology eligible or certified individuals are preferred. Commensurate with PGY5 pay level or candidate's level of training. The thyroid surgery program is very active and provides excellent case material in thyroid pathology. An active institutional program in oral and maxillofacial surgery, as well as an oral pathology outreach program, offers a rich and uniquely diverse training experience.

Suite Beverly Hills, CA p: University of Colorado Hospital Denver Colorado http: Center for Gastroenterology Taft St. David Shepherd N. Tampania Avenue Tampa FL phone: Maryland Avenue Chicago, IL Center for Advanced Medicine S. Maryland Avenue Chicago, IL http: Forman, MD Osler Dr. Johns Hopkins Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology various locations throughout the greater Baltimore area, including: Detroit MI Phone: The stethoscope is an acoustic medical device for auscultation , or listening to the internal sounds of an animal or human body.

It typically has a small disc-shaped resonator that is placed against the chest, and two tubes connected to earpieces. It is often used to listen to lung and heart sounds. It is also used to listen to intestines and blood flow in arteries and veins. In combination with a sphygmomanometer , it is commonly used for measurements of blood pressure. Less commonly, "mechanic's stethoscopes", equipped with rod shaped chestpieces, are used to listen to internal sounds made by machines for example, sounds and vibrations emitted by worn ball bearings , such as diagnosing a malfunctioning automobile engine by listening to the sounds of its internal parts.

Stethoscopes can also be used to check scientific vacuum chambers for leaks, and for various other small-scale acoustic monitoring tasks. A stethoscope that intensifies auscultatory sounds is called phonendoscope. Laennec invented the stethoscope because he was uncomfortable placing his ear on women's chests to hear heart sounds. Today the word auscultation denotes all such listening, mediate or not. The first flexible stethoscope of any sort may have been a binaural instrument with articulated joints not very clearly described in Bird was the first to publish a description of such a stethoscope but he noted in his paper the prior existence of an earlier design which he thought was of little utility which he described as the snake ear trumpet.

Bird's stethoscope had a single earpiece. In , Irish physician Arthur Leared invented a binaural stethoscope and, in , George Philip Cammann perfected the design of the stethoscope instrument that used both ears for commercial production, which has become the standard ever since. Cammann also wrote a major treatise on diagnosis by auscultation, which the refined binaural stethoscope made possible.

By , there were descriptions of a differential stethoscope that could connect to slightly different locations to create a slight stereo effect, though this did not become a standard tool in clinical practice.

Somerville Scott Alison described his invention of the stethophone at the Royal Society in ; the stethophone had two separate bells, allowing the user to hear and compare sounds derived from two discrete locations.

This was used to do definitive studies on binaural hearing and auditory processing that advanced knowledge of sound localization and eventually lead to an understanding of binaural fusion.

The medical historian Jacalyn Duffin has argued that the invention of the stethoscope marked a major step in the redefinition of disease from being a bundle of symptoms, to the current sense of a disease as a problem with an anatomical system even if there are no noticeable symptoms.

This re-conceptualization occurred in part, Duffin argues, because prior to stethoscopes, there were no non-lethal instruments for exploring internal anatomy. Rappaport and Sprague designed a new stethoscope in the s, which became the standard by which other stethoscopes are measured, consisting of two sides, one of which is used for the respiratory system, the other for the cardiovascular system. The Rappaport-Sprague was later made by Hewlett-Packard.

HP's medical products division was spun off as part of Agilent Technologies, Inc. Several other minor refinements were made to stethoscopes until, in the early s, David Littmann , a Harvard Medical School professor, created a new stethoscope that was lighter than previous models and had improved acoustics. The left shift to a lower resonant frequency increases the volume of some low frequency sounds due to the longer waves propagated by the increased excursion of the hard diaphragm member suspended in the concentric accountic surround.

Conversely, restricting excursion of the diaphragm by pressing the stethoscope diaphragm surface firmly against the anatomical area overlying the physiological sounds of interest, the acoustic surround could also be used to dampen excursion of the diaphragm in response to "z"-axis pressure against a concentric fret. This raises the frequency bias by shortening the wavelength to auscultate a higher range of physiological sounds. It featured two parallel lumens containing two steel coils which dissipated infiltrating noise as inaudible heat energy.

The steel coil "insulation" added. Stethoscopes are often considered as a symbol of healthcare professionals, as various healthcare providers are often seen or depicted with stethoscopes hanging around their necks. A research paper claimed that the stethoscope, when compared to other medical equipment, had the highest positive impact on the perceived trustworthiness of the practitioner seen with it.

The advent of practical, widespread portable ultrasonography point-of-care ultrasonography in the late s to early s led some physicians to ask how soon it would be before stethoscopes would become obsolete. One consideration is that it depends on the segment of health care emergency medical services , nursing , medicine and the specialty. Acoustic stethoscopes are familiar to most people, and operate on the transmission of sound from the chest piece, via air-filled hollow tubes, to the listener's ears.

The chestpiece usually consists of two sides that can be placed against the patient for sensing sound: