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Using Diet to Balance the Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nervous Systems – Part 2 of 3
These are called lobes , and there are four of them: What is Chronic Stress? Leave a Reply Cancel reply Your email address will not be published. As my MCS began when I was The sympathetic chain nervous connects to skin, blood vessels and organs in the body cavity and is located on both sides of the spine which consists of ganglias. This testimonial contained multiple links and were removed. Disorders of the autonomic nervous system are not very familiar to most because they are often not to referred to in this manner.

Types of Toxins or Stressors

Lifestyle Changes to Balance the Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nervous Systems – Part 3 of 3

The hypothalamus controls body temperature, thirst, appetite, sleep patterns, and other processes in our bodies that happen automatically. It also controls the pituitary gland, which makes the hormones that control our growth, metabolism, water and mineral balance, sexual maturity, and how we respond to stress. The midbrain, located underneath the middle of the forebrain, acts as a master coordinator for all the messages going in and out of the brain to the spinal cord.

The hindbrain sits underneath the back end of the cerebrum, and it consists of the cerebellum, pons, and medulla. The cerebellum — also called the "little brain" because it looks like a small version of the cerebrum — is responsible for balance, movement, and coordination.

The pons and the medulla , along with the midbrain, are often called the brainstem. The brainstem takes in, sends out, and coordinates all of the brain's messages. It is also controls many of the body's automatic functions, like breathing, heart rate, blood pressure, swallowing, digestion, and blinking.

The basic functioning of the nervous system depends a lot on tiny cells called neurons. The brain has billions of them, and they have many specialized jobs. For example, sensory neurons take information from the eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and skin to the brain. Motor neurons carry messages away from the brain and back to the rest of the body.

All neurons relay information to each other through a complex electrochemical process, making connections that affect the way we think, learn, move, and behave. When you learn things, messages travel from one neuron to another, over and over.

Then the brain creates connections or pathways between the neurons, so things become easier and you can do them better and better. In young children, the brain is highly adaptable. In fact, when one part of a young child's brain is injured, another part may learn to take over some of the lost function. But as we age, the brain has to work harder to make new neural pathways, making it more difficult to master new tasks or change established behavior patterns.

That's why many scientists believe it's important to keep challenging your brain to learn new things and make new connections — it helps keep the brain active over the course of a lifetime.

Memory is another complex function of the brain. The things we've done, learned, and seen are first processed in the cortex, and then, if we sense that this information is important enough to remember permanently, it's passed inward to other regions of the brain such as the hippocampus and amygdala for long-term storage and retrieval.

As these messages travel through the brain, they create pathways that serve as the basis of our memory. Different parts of the cerebrum are responsible for moving different body parts. The left side of the brain controls the movements of the right side of the body, and the right side of the brain controls the movements of the left side of the body. When you kick a soccer ball with your right foot, for example, it's the left side of your brain that sends the message allowing you to do it.

A part of the peripheral nervous system called the autonomic nervous system is responsible for controlling many of the body processes we almost never need to think about, like breathing, digestion, sweating, and shivering. The autonomic nervous system has two parts: The sympathetic nervous system prepares the body for sudden stress, like if you see a robbery taking place.

When something frightening happens, the sympathetic nervous system makes the heart beat faster so that it sends blood more quickly to the different body parts that might need it. It also causes the adrenal glands at the top of the kidneys to release adrenaline, a hormone that helps give extra power to the muscles for a quick getaway.

This process is known as the body's "fight or flight" response. The parasympathetic nervous system does the exact opposite: It prepares the body for rest. It also helps the digestive tract move along so our bodies can efficiently take in nutrients from the food we eat.

Your eyes may watch as your best friend walks toward you — but without the brain, you wouldn't even recognize her. Pepperoni pizza sure is delicious — but without the brain, your taste buds wouldn't be able to tell if you were eating pizza or the box it came in.

None of your senses would be useful without the processing that occurs in the brain. Because the brain controls just about everything, when something goes wrong, it's often serious and can affect many different parts of the body.

Inherited diseases, brain disorders associated with mental illness, and head injuries can all affect the way the brain works and upset the daily activities of the rest of the body. The sympathetic chain nervous connects to skin, blood vessels and organs in the body cavity and is located on both sides of the spine which consists of ganglias.

The autonomic nervous system also provides maintenance of normal internal functions and works with the somatic nervous system. When the body reacts to signals such as danger, it is the sympathetic ganglia that performs functions such as widening the lungs for more oxygen, reduces desire to consume food, sends blood to the brain and increases heart rate.

Above is a common picture of the sympathetic nervous system and inner connections. You can see that how complicated the sympathetic chain is and how difficult Endoscopic Thoracic Sympathicothomy is!

This is not a matter to be taken lightly! As you may have noted in the name of this, it affects the Sympathetic nervous system. One of its symptoms is excessive sweating. After I shower and dry off, I start sweating instantly. I have water running down my back. It runs down my face. Under my breast and between them and the groin area, are never dry.

I feel like I smell. I get so depressed at times. Any remedies you have tried that seem to work or at least help a bit. Thanks a Bunch Liane. I have had this excess sweating for 15 years.

I used cocaine for 8 years. Before that I was in perfect physical condition and could run 20 miles with sweating a bit. Now my sympathetic nervous system is in full speed all the time and I sweat like a pig even when I take the garbage out. I cannot do physical work anymore without suffering from extreme exhaustion ten seconds after starting. Does anyone know if there is some help for this. All my fault, all my fault.

First off, I want to thank you sooo much for your brave and rational approach to this mysterious condition. Which like yourself, I too suffer from, hands, feet and armpits.

I have had my hyper-hydrosis for as long as I can remember. Yeah, it bothers me. Yeah, I hate shaking or holding hands with others or high-fiving for that matter. So, you KNOW what! They can get lost. I was born this condition, I cannot control it. Which to me, is worse. So, I just have to embrace my sweaty self and adapt to different situations.

The next job interview I have, I will be courageous enough to forewarn the interviewer about my condition. And if you choose not to give me the job or a 2nd date because of my sweaty palms. There are people out there who will understand and appreciate me. YOU truly have to adapt and strengthen your resolve to not let this stupid condition control your life. Thank you so much for sharing Sweaty D!!! I am 31 years old.

I felt like a lab rat. I was affected in the feet, hands and armpits at first. I t was bad, dripping from the hands. Yes, it led me to stress, lack of social, sports, anger, communication failure, drinking, drugs, relocating to colder climates and more. However, i dealt with it and made decisions that led me to believe it was meant to be and i had to deal with it. Its difficult to explain to others the symptoms, as others always say they sweat too.

I decided in to have the ETS and felt this was the last resort of solving this. I began to sweat from chest down, legs, groin, back, face.

I was that small percentage that would fail to make the sweating stop. I decided 3 months later to take the clamps off.

Yes, i changed clothes daily. I sat next to the AC all the time. I would walk down the street and find myself dripping. I still had FUN! Some symptoms have increased drastically over the years. In the last few weeks my hands have began to sweat like when i was a young teen.

I wear nothing but dri fit clothing. Black majority of the time to compensate the visual of the sweating. I use towels daily. However, i am a successful human being. I have a family wife and kids that understands ME and supports the decisions WE make together when the sweating affects me us. I have not told many friends, hell its hard to keep friends that understand this condition, as they all say they sweat.

I exercise, work and eat daily. I finally have opened up and expressed my feelings and concerns to some. The sweating symptoms have cause kidney stones, depression, dehydration and more. YOU I have to adapt and be consistent in order to overcome this. Drink water regularly, ya i will sweat more but whats a few more drops of water off the skin, right. Everyone is different so adapt to the condition the best way you can.

Thank you again for your time and consideration! Although i have never met anyone with this condition, or someone who had the ETS. OMG so glad i am not alone. Iam a 42 year old female and its getting worse with age.

Hands and feet are my big issue. I am ruining shoes as they are soaking wet by the end of the day. Im noticing my face is now breaking out in a sweat when i am embarassed or nervous. Ive had hypnotherapy which has helped me remain calmish but the sweating still happens. It cant purely be a nervous condition. Its ridiculous and im over it. I am in Australia so not confident of finding that herbal tea but will try.

Next stop is to GP again to see what he can offer even if its for times when i know i will need help ie; meeting clients, job interviews. I have problem of sweating any time only not sleeping time But my hands and feet and palms too sweating at the time of nervous. Thiazide diuretics, such as chlorothiazide and hydrochlorothiazide often abbreviated HCTZ , inhibit sodium reabsorption in distal renal tubules resulting in increased excretion of sodium and water.

Loop diuretics and thiazide diuretics also cause patients to lose a lot of potassium. Potassium sparing diuretics, such as spironolactone and triamterene, have an effect on renal distal tubules to inhibit sodium reabsorption causing the excretion of sodium and water but allows for the retention of potassium.

Antiarrhythmic agents are a group of pharmaceuticals that are used to suppress abnormal rhythms of the heart cardiac arrhythmias , such as atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, ventricular tachycardia, and ventricular fibrillation. A mi OH da rone ] - tablet, injectable solution Multaq generic name: Their main uses are in the treatment of hypertension high blood pressure , diabetic nephropathy kidney damage due to diabetes , and congestive heart failure.

Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors ACE inhibitors causes dilation of blood vessels which results in lower blood pressure. In treating heart disease, ACE inhibitors are usually used with other medications.

A typical treatment plan will often include an ACE inhibitor, beta blocker, a long acting nitrate, and a calcium channel blocker in combinations that are adjusted to the individual patient's needs. KAP toe pril ] - tablet Vasotec generic name: KWIN a pril ] - tablet Altace generic name: RAM i pril ] - capsule. These drugs are used to treat hypertension. Calcium channel blockers work by inhibiting the influx of calcium ions into myocardial and vascular tissues thereby preventing contractions and causing the dilation of the main coronary and systemic arteries.

Patients should avoid grapefruit and its constituents while taking calcium channel blockers. Grapefruit inhibits an isoenzyme called CYP3A4 that helps breakdown calcium channel blockers. Inhibiting this enzyme causes patients to effectively be overdosed by their calcium channel blockers. Interactions related to grapefruit are often referred to as grapefruit juice drug interactions GJDI.

Nitrates relax smooth muscle via dose-dependent dilation of arterial and venous beds to reduce both preload and afterload, and myocardial oxygen demand. Nitrates also improve coronary collateral circulation, lowers blood pressure, and increases heart rate.

Nitrates are used for both the relief and prevention of angina pectoris, treatment of perioperative hypertension, control of congestive heart failure during a myocardial infarction, and you will see these used off label for the treatment of anal fissures. Typically, patients need a nitrate free interval to minimize tolerance. This nitrate free interval is often provided at night. Nitroglycerin also has special storage requirements due to its relative reactivity with certain plastics.

As a result, the sublingual tablets should be stored in glass; typically, this means that patients should keep them in their original container from the manufacturer.

Also, the nitroglycerin intravenous solution is infused with special tubing to prevent the drug from leaching into the plastic of most infusion sets.

NYE troe GLIS er in ] NTG - sublingual tablet, extended-release capsule, translingual solution, transdermal patch, intravenous solution, transdermal ointment, rectal ointment. A renin inhibitor prevents the conversion of angiotensinogen to angiotensin I. The decrease in angiotensin I causes a decrease in angiotensin II, a potent blood pressure elevating peptide. This makes renin inhibitors effective in the treatment of hypertension. Many antihypertensive medications are provided in combinations in order to combine effects and improve patient compliance by decreasing the number of medications the patient may need to take.

As all the medications listed below have already been discussed in this chapter, you may refer to the previous information concerning each active ingredient within the combination medications listed below. Tekturna HCT generic name: A broad range of chemicals with various mechanisms of action fall into this category.

Anticoagulants and antiplatelet drugs are used for the following treatments: Medication interactions are a common concern with these drugs as many pain relievers most NSAIDs and aspirin may slow a patient's clotting time. These pain relievers should not be taken in combination with the various anticoagulant and antiplatelet drugs without first consulting a physician.

Warfarin also provides a significant food-drug interaction. Warfarin prevents coagulation by binding vitamin K; therefore foods rich in vitamin K such as dark leafy greens, broccoli, and asparagus should be avoided as they will interfere with warfarin.

AS pi rin and dye peer ID a mole ] - extended-release capsule Plavix generic name: WAR far in ] - - tablet, powder for injection. This is significant because most circulating cholesterol comes from internal manufacture rather than the diet.

When the liver can no longer produce cholesterol, total levels of cholesterol in the blood will fall, particularly LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides. They also increase "good cholesterol" -- HDL cholesterol. Cholesterol synthesis appears to occur mostly at night, so statins with short half-lives are usually taken at night to maximize their effect.

The most common adverse side effects are raised liver enzymes and muscle problems most frequently muscle cramps. Inhibiting this enzyme causes patients to effectively be overdosed by their HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors. Interactions related to grapefruit are often refereed to as grapefruit juice drug interactions GJDI.

LOE va sta tin ] - tablet, extended-release tablet Pravachol generic name: SIM va sta tin ] - tablet. There are a number of other medications used to reduce cholesterol with various mechanisms of action. SIM va stat in and ez ET i mibe ] - tablet. An allergy is a hypersensitivity to a substance an allergen that is normally harmless.

Allergy sufferers may endure a wide variety of symptoms such as inflammation of the nasal passages and the conjunctiva a membrane covering the white part of the eye , skin conditions such as hives and eczema, and asthma attacks. Some allergic conditions can be more serious and even involve anaphylaxis!

Exposure to allergens that an individual has become sensitive causes their bodies to release histamines. Patients that desire symptomatic relief may use antihistamines and decongestants. First generation antihistamines diphenhydramine and hydroxyzine can cross the blood brain barrier.

As a result, diphenhydramine may be used to treat insomnia, and hydroxyzine may be used to treat nausea and vomiting. DES lor A ta deen ] - tablet, disintegrating tablet, syrup Benadryl generic name: DYE fen HYE dra meen ] - tablet, chewable tablet, disintegrating tablet, capsule, oral solution, cream, gel, ointment, lotion, topical aerosol spray, oral strip, injectable solution Allegra generic name: OH loe PAT a deen ] - ophthalmic drops, nasal spray.

Patients with either colds or congestion related to their allergies may desire an antihistamine in combination with a decongestant. Since pseudoephedrine is the most commonly included decongestant, many of the medications need to be kept behind the counter in order to limit their availability.

This is a result of the Combat Methamphetamine Epidemic Act , an act intended to decrease the number of clandestine methamphetamine labs in the United States. Zyrtec D generic name: Some patients may have respiratory conditions such as asthma or bronchitis. Patients may receive glucocorticosteroids, bronchodialators, leukotriene receptor antagonists, or even epinephrine to treat or prevent acute episodes. Glucocorticosteroids and epinephrine have already been discussed in this article; therefore, this section will focus on bronchodialators and leukotriene receptor antagonists.

A bronchodilator is a substance that dilates the bronchi and bronchioles, decreasing resistance in the respiratory airway and increasing airflow to the lungs. The bronchodialators on this list can be further broken down into beta-2 agonists albuterol, levalbuterol, and salmeterol and anticholinergics ipratropium and tiotropium. Fluticasone, which may be used on it own or in combination with other drugs, is classified as a glucocorticosteroid.

IP ra TRO pee um ] - inhalation aerosol, solution for nebulization, nasal spray Xopenex generic name: Leukotriene receptor antagonists have been shown to improve asthma symptoms, reduce asthma exacerbations, and limit markers of inflammation. These medications are also used for allergies.

The gastrointestinal system stretches from mouth to anus and includes the esophagus, stomach, and intestines. The long portion of the body can have a plethora of ailments from heart burn and reflux, to stomach and duodenal ulcers, to emesis and diarrhea.

This section endeavors to look at some of the more common medications utilized to cover these conditions. H 2 -receptor antagonists are used to block the action of histamine on parietal cells in the stomach, decreasing the production of acid by these cells. H2-antagonists are used for peptic ulcer disease PUD , gastroesophageal reflux disease GERD , dyspepsia, and the prevention of stress ulcers.

Proton-pump inhibitors PPIs produce a pronounced and long-lasting reduction of gastric acid production. These drugs are used to treat dyspepsia, duodenal ulcers, peptic ulcer disease PUD , gastroesophageal reflux disease GERD , laryngopharyngeal reflux, Barrett's esophagus, stress gastritis prevention, gastrinomas and other conditions that cause hypersecretion of acid, and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome.

PPIs are also used, in combination with antibiotics, to treat helicobacter pylori. Antiemetics are used to treat nausea and vomiting associated with a number of things including motion sickness, the side effects of opioid analgesics and general anesthetics, and chemotherapy directed against cancer.

Antiemetics are also used for morning sickness; however there is little information about the effect on the fetus, and therefore are typically reserved for times considered strictly necessary. MEK li zeen ] - tablet, chewable tablet Reglan generic name: Stool softeners and laxatives are taken to loosen stool and treat constipation.

SIL ee um ] - powder for oral solution Senokot generic name: SEN nah ] - tablet, chewable tablet, syrup. The thyroid gland secretes three hormones: Triiodothyronine and thyroxine help regulate tissue growth and mitochondrial metabolism in most of the cells in the human body. Thyrocalcitonin primarily affects bone formation.

Thyroid replacement therapies are primarily used to treat hypothyroidism. These therapies use medications that replace T3 liothyronine , T4 levothyroxine , or both T3 and T4 thyroid. Synthroid, Levoxyl, Levothroid generic name: THYE roid ] - tablet. Osteoporosis and Paget's Disease are diseases in which bones have decreased mass and are more fragile. While calcium and vitamin D both discussed further when talking about dietary supplements in a later section are important to developing and maintaining strong bones, other medications are used to specifically combat these diseases, such as calcitonin used to supplement thyrocalcitonin , bisphosphonate derivatives such as alendronate, ibandronate, risedronate, and zoledronic acid , and parathyroid hormone analog teriparatide.

Patients should be instructed to remain upright for 60 minutes after taking a bisphosphonate derivative to prevent stomach upset, and inflammation and erosion of the esophagus. Type 1 diabetes, also known as insulin dependent diabetes mellitus IDDM or juvenile diabetes, typically appears during childhood or adolescence.

Individuals with type 1 diabetes require insulin therapy as their bodies do not produce insulin. Type 2 diabetes, also known as non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus NIDDM , usually occurs in adults. Individuals with type 2 diabetes either don't produce enough insulin or their cells have become insulin resistant. These patients will usually receive non-insulin therapies, although they may receive insulin therapy, or even a combination of insulin and non-insulin therapies.

A combination of rapid-acting insulin aspart, insulin glulisine, insulin lispro or short-acting insulin regular given in combination with either an intermediate-acting insulin NPH or long-acting insulin detemir, insulin glargine insulin are typically used. IN soo lin DE te mir ] - vial for injection, prefilled pen Lantus generic name: IN soo lin REG yoo ler hoo man ] - vial for injection, prefilled pen, concentrated vial for injection.

Metformin decreases hepatic glucose production, decreases GI glucose absorption, and increases target cell insulin sensitivity. Glucophage, Glucophage XR generic name: Sulfonylureas initially increase insulin secretion, increase insulin receptor sensitivity, and may decrease liver production of glucose. Some patients have an increased risk of hypoglycemia from sulfonylureas. These medications have a cross-sensitivity with sulfa allergies.

GLYE bue ride ] - tablet, micronized tablet. Thiazolidinediones improve cellular response to insulin and decreases the liver's production of glucose. Thiazolidinediones, particularly products containing rosiglitazone, may cause or exacerbate congestive heart failure in some patients. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 DPP-4 degrade incretin hormones.

DPP-4 inhibitors increase and prolong incretin hormone activity. Incretins increase insulin release and synthesis. SI ta glip tin ] - tablet. Often, type 2 diabetics will require multiple medications. Combination products provide convenience and improved patient compliance. SI ta glip tin and met FOR min ] - tablet. Antineoplastics and monoclonal antibodies are types of chemotherapy. Chemotherapy is the use of medications to kill cancer cells. Chemotherapy is used for diffuse tumors and is used after surgery and irradiation of solid tumors in the attempt to eliminate remaining cancer cells that have metastasized.

Antineoplastic agents are primarily concerned with inhibiting uncontrolled new cell growth cancer. The following is a table intended to give a succinct list of which antineoplastic agents can be used to treat various cancers. This list is not considered complete, but focuses on the antineoplastic agents discussed in this article. Sometimes these antineoplastic agents are used for diseases other than cancer. Bleomycin can be used for pleural sclerosing.

Cyclophosphamide can be used for nephrotic syndrome, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, lupus nephritis, and systemic sclerosis. Methotrexate can be used psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis. Unfortunately, antineoplastic agents can not differentiate between cancer cells and healthy cells which is responsible for many of the common side effects from these treatments as there is rapid cell growth in bone marrow, the GI tract, hair follicles, and skin cells.

This often results in anemias, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, hair loss, photosensitivity, and thinner skin. Many of these medications also have their own unique adverse effects. These medications are considered phase non-selective for when they work; therefore, they work during all phases, except for the G 0 phase. Besides the broad grouping of side effects common to antineoplastic agents, these drugs have the following side effects as well: Besides the broad grouping of side effects common to antineoplastic agents, they can cause stomatitis and have cardiotoxicities.

These drugs are also considered vesicants. These medications have pulmonary toxicities. Mitomycin is also considered a vesicant. All of these medications may cause stomatitis. Gemcitabine may also cause a flu-like syndrome. Methotrexate can cause renal dysfunction. Additional side effects with these medications include peripheral neuropathy and hypersensitivity reactions.

VePesid, vp 16 generic name: Tumors that involve the reproductive organs breast, ovaries, uterus, prostate and testes are often hormone-dependent.

The hormones that are often responsible for developing and maintaining these organs are now functioning as growth factors for these cancerous cells. Hormone antagonists can be useful in the treatment of these cancers. Hormone antagonists tend to work best during the G 1 phase by pushing these cancer cells into the G 0 phase. LET roe zol ] - tablet. LOO proe lide ] - solution for injection, prefilled syringe.

Monoclonal antibodies, often referred to as targeted therapy, only works against specific cells. To take that a step further, they only react with specific epitopes or antigens. This can reduce or even eliminate many of the side effects, but the medications tend to be very limited as to which cancers and autoimmune diseases they can treat.

This is a result of monoclonal antibodies being monospecific antibodies that are all identical, because they are made by immune cells that are all clones of a unique parent cell.

This specificity can also be problematic if the antigen becomes minimally changed. Monoclonal antibodies are also used to treat age related macular degeneration bevacizumab , Wegener granulomatosis rituximab , idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis infliximab , respiratory syncytial virus palivizumab , sarcoidosis infliximab , rheumatoid arthritis adalimumab, infliximab, rituximab , psoriatic arthritis adalimumab, infliximab , ankylosing spondylitis adalimumab, infliximab , Crohn's disease adalimumab, infliximab , ulcerative colitis adalimumab, infliximab , plaque psoriasis adalimumab, infliximab , microscopic polyangiitis rituximab , and immune thrombocytopenic purpura rituximab.

There is a wide array of medications with just a few medications in each category. This section provides information on various common medications that could not be grouped into previous sections. These medications affect the hemopoietic stem cells in bone marrow causing an increase in either red blood cells darbepoetin, epoetin , white blood cells filgrastim , or platelets oprelvekin. Dialysis, chemotherapy, and various other causes of anemia make this class of medications extremely useful.

Gouty arthritis is painful inflammation often of the big toe and foot resulting from elevated levels of uric acid in the blood and the deposition of urate crystals around the joints. This disease has a greater occurrence in men. The condition can become chronic and result in deformity. Allopurinol, azathioprine, and colchicine can all be used to treat gouty arthritis. Allopurinol is also used to treat antineoplastic induced hyperuricemia.

Azathioprine can also be used for prevention of kidney transplant rejection, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus nephritis, Behcet's syndrome, Crohn's disease, myasthenia gravis, and multiple sclerosis. Colchicine can also be used for familial Mediterranean fever, and Behcet's syndrome. KOL chi seen ] - tablet. Etanercept binds and inactivates tumor necrosis factors TNF , thereby preventing synovial inflammation.

A phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor PDE-5 inhibitor is a drug used to block the degradative action of phosphodiesterase type 5 on cyclic GMP in the smooth muscle cells lining the blood vessels supplying the corpus cavernosum of the penis. These drugs are used in the treatment of erectile dysfunction, and were the first effective oral treatment available for the condition. Because PDE-5 is also present in the arterial wall smooth muscle within the lungs, PDE-5 inhibitors have also been used in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension, a disease in which blood vessels in the lungs become overloaded with fluid, usually as a result of failure of the left ventricle of the heart.

Viagra, Revatio generic name: A cough medicine is a medication used in an attempt to treat coughing and related conditions. For dry coughs, treatment with cough suppressants, antitussives benzonatate, codeine, dextromethorphan , may be attempted to suppress the body's urge to cough.

However, in productive coughs coughs that produce phlegm , treatment is instead attempted with expectorants guaifenesin to loosen mucus from the respiratory tract.

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