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Department of Kinesiology, Health, and Nutrition
Research on Nutrisystem customers showed an average weight-loss of 18 pounds at three months and 27 pounds at six months. Some are nutritionally sound, some are not. Like diet books, web-based diet programs come in many shapes and sizes. The number is a little easier to remember, and it's on the back of their debit cards. Papillomatosis has been recorded only once in wolves, and likely doesn't cause serious illness or death, though it may alter feeding behaviors. Then press 0 until transferred to a human.

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How one-minute bursts of exercise can boost health for over-60s in just six weeks

Formerly titled "Cultural and Scientific Foundations of Kinesiology. Outdoor Activities and Innovative Games. Practice in delivering instructions of selected outdoor activities hiking, orienteering, biking and innovative games for all age groups.

Weekend class field trips required. Laboratory fee will be assessed. Formerly titled "Outdoor Activities and Lifetime Sports. Introduction to concepts and skills that will prepare the student to become an effective leader of physical fitness, sport and health, and physical education programs. Skill Analysis in Physical Activity: Practice in delivering developmentally appropriate physical activity instruction in a variety of selected individual activities such as golf, bowling, archery, and track and field.

This course will discuss the principles and philosophies of coaching sports. Domains will remain consistent with that of the National Standards for Sport Coaches and will focus on philosophy and ethics, safety and injury prevention, physical conditioning, growth and development, teaching and communication, sport skills and tactics, organization and administration, and evaluation.

Practice in delivering developmentally appropriate physical activity instruction in a variety of selected team sports, such as football, volleyball, and team handball. Practice in delivering developmentally appropriate physical activity instruction in a variety of selected dual sports, such as badminton, tennis and handball.

Practice in delivering a variety of appropriate aerobic, musculoskeletal fitness, and wellness activities for children and adults. Formerly titled "Aerobic Fitness Instruction. Provide instruction in facilitating the foundational movement skills which provide the basis for all movement capacities and their application in specialized activities geared to the early childhood through adolescent stages.

Formerly titled "Rhythmical Activities and Dance. Instructional techniques applied to health related fitness using resistance training, balance, flexibility, and musculoskeletal conditioning activities. A study of motor, physical, and neuromuscular development across the human life span. Effects of social, cognitive, growth and maturation, and aging factors on motor development will be addressed. Directed field experience may be required. Scientific Principles of Physical Activity.

A study of the physiological and biomechanical principles of physical activity and human movement. Emphasis is placed on acute responses and chronic adaptations of the musculoskeletal and cardiorespiratory systems to physical activity.

Care and Prevention of Athletic Injuries. Prevention and care of athletic injuries. A study of training and conditioning for the team and individual.

Techniques and procedures for emergencies: Organization of the training room facility. Formerly titled "Athletic Injuries and Training Procedures. Anatomy and Physiology for Kinesiology. A detailed study of anatomy and physiology of the human cardiorespiratory, musculoskeletal and nervous systems.

Emphasis will be placed on the anatomical factors that cause human movement and application to common exercise-related injuries. Anatomy laboratory hours may be required.

Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of human movement through analysis of video and biomechanical data. Application of Biomechanics to sports performance enhancement and injury prevention. The study of the human body in sports motion and sport objects in motion. The application of mechanical principles, kinematics, and kinetics.

Biomechanics laboratory hours are required. Development, organization, and delivery of appropriate physical activities for children through the adolescent stage. Some fieldwork observation experiences may be required. Laboratory exercises demonstrating principles of exercise physiology.

Topics include metabolic, cardiorespiratory, and neuromuscular responses to physical activity and exercise. A study of the adaptation and effects of the body to physiological stress. Emphasis will be placed on the physiology of training, metabolism and work capacity, and electrocardiography. Health Related Fitness Assessment Laboratory. This course includes laboratory and clinical measurements of aerobic capacity, balance, body composition, electrocardiography, flexibility, muscular endurance, muscular strength, and pulmonary function.

Students are required to demonstrate competence in administering health related physical fitness. Health Related Fitness Assessment. A study of the principles and concepts of fitness measurement. Topics include graded exercise testing, electrocardiography, assessment of aerobic capacity, body composition, flexibility, muscular strength, muscular endurance, and pulmonary function.

Fitness Programming and Exercise Prescription. A study and application of principles and concepts related to designing exercise programs. The target population includes apparently healthy adults and individuals with special considerations, including cardiovascular disease, pulmonary disease, obesity, diabetes, pregnancy, and children.

A detailed examination of the nervous, muscular, and skeletal systems. This course focuses on bones. The etiology and pathophysiology of common sport and exercise related injuries to the musculoskeleton will be introduced. Laboratory examination of the skeletal system may be required. An investigation of psychological processes and behaviors related to participation in exercise and physical activities. Psychological effects of exercise, motives for fitness, exercise adherence, and fitness counseling.

This course is designed to introduce students to a variety of therapeutic modalities currently used in clinical rehabilitation. Application of test, measurement, and evaluation theory. Emphasis is on proper selection and administration of tests, appropriate evaluation of test results using basic statistical procedures, and assignment of grades. Introduction to Sport Psychology. This course involves an in-depth study of the psychological factors that underlie and support human behavior and performance, particularly as it relates to sports.

This course introduces contemporary and practical theories regarding mental processes and applicable uses for this information. Formerly titled "Psychosocial Aspects of Exercise and Sport. Evaluation of Athletic Injuries. This course deals in depth with issues related to athletic training, including assessment of injuries, and proper taping and wrapping techniques.

Formerly titled "Advanced Athletic Training. Teaching Secondary Physical Education. Examination of current trends, issues, and pedagogical approaches to the teaching and learning of physical education in the secondary school curriculum.

Contemporary programming, behavior management strategies, and community outreach activities will be emphasized. Weekly fieldwork in the public schools at the secondary school level is required.

Restricted course; advisor code required for registration. In-depth study of exercise physiology, emphasizing application of physiological principles of training for physical fitness and sport performance, graded exercise testing, and professional issues. This course includes introduction to research in exercise physiology.

This course examines various therapeutic exercises and programs used in the treatment and rehabilitation of exercise-related injuries. This course will address the basic concepts of nutrition from a scientific basis, applying these concepts to understanding of food nutritional labeling, dietary recommendations for health and fitness, as well as exercise or sport performance enhancement. This course will examine the essential knowledge, skills, and abilities necessary for exercise physiology practiced in clinical settings.

Topics will include diseases of the cardiovascular, pulmonary, and metabolic systems. Skills in administering graded exercise testing with ECG monitoring, pulmonary function testing, and screening for metabolic disease will be emphasized in laboratory settings. Additionally, exercise prescription and programming will be studied for persons with chronic disease.

Teaching Elementary Physical Education. Examination of current trends, issues, and pedagogical approaches to teaching and facilitating learning of physical education in the elementary school curriculum. Contemporary programming, problem solving, and community outreach activities will be emphasized. Weekly fieldwork in the public schools at the elementary school level is required. Study of concepts of movement awareness and the elements of movement that are the basis of all movement capacities.

Application of these concepts to the learning of motor skills will be included. Laboratory exercises demonstrating the principles of motor learning and motor control. Functional applications of motor control and learning theory in skill instruction and sports performance.

Motor learning laboratory hours are required. Theory of coaching relevant to athletics. Emphasis on organization and content involved in coaching sports. The sport content may vary in different semesters between baseball, basketball, football, soccer, softball, and volleyball. Course may be repeated for credit.

A developmental and functional approach to the study of disabilities in physical activity. Legislation, pathologies, and adaptation principles. Field experience is required throughout the course.

Clinical Applications of Athletic Injuries. Consent of instructor and admission to the Athletic Training concentration or Kinesiology and Health Science concentration. This course provides practical applications in prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of athletic injuries, and includes hours of supervised field, laboratory and clinical experiences in athletic training.

May be repeated for credit for a maximum of 6 semester credit hours. Practicum in Kinesiology Research. Admission to Kinesiology major and consent of Instructor. This course provides supervised research experience in various areas of kinesiology.

May be repeated for credit, but not more than 6 semester credit hours will apply to a bachelor's degree. Supervised internship with appropriate agency in the field of kinesiology. First Aid and CPR certification and consent of instructor.

Supervised coaching practicum with appropriate agency in the field of kinesiology. Formerly titled "Practicum in Kinesiology. Organized course offering the opportunity for specialized study not normally or not often available as part of the regular course offerings. Students will learn and apply counseling techniques to promote the adoption of health-promoting lifestyle behaviors in diverse populations. Basic counseling theories will be introduced. Capstone course and seminar for students pursuing training and certification in exercise science, and preparation for graduate studies.

Introduction to Nutritional Sciences. Basic concepts related to the classification and functions of nutrients; the process of digestion, absorption, transport, utilization, and storage of nutrients in humans and the interaction between diet and health. Applied Food Science Practicum. The application of concepts related to the chemical, physical, sensory, and nutritional properties of food in menu planning, food preparation, and recipe modification. Introduction to Nutrition and Dietetics Careers.

Nutrition and Dietetics majors only. General overview of nutrition and dietetics as a profession, including career opportunities, scope of practice, credentialing, code of ethics, and collaboration with other disciplines. Self-directed modules on medical terminology, word roots, prefixes and suffixes will be integrated into the course content.

Practicum related to the procurement, preparation, and delivery of food in large foodservice operations. Concepts related to the chemical, physical, sensory, and nutritional properties of food in menu planning, food preparation, and recipe modification. Nutrition and Health Assessment. Methods, tools, and interpretation of data in assessing the nutritional status of individuals including dietary, anthropometric, biochemical, and clinical assessment, as well as other measurements of health in individuals and the community.

Nutrition Counseling and Education. Discussion of theories of learning and behavior modification, models and techniques, communication skills, evaluation methods, and cultural competence in nutrition counseling and education; and application of concepts to facilitate behavioral change.

Nutrition in the Life Span. Nutritional needs during various stages of the lifecycle as influenced by physiologic, cultural, and environmental factors. Production and Foodservice System Management I. Principles related to the menu planning, food sanitation and safety, procurement, production, marketing, and materials management in foodservice operations Generally offered: Advanced discussion of nutrient structure, function and interaction, metabolic pathways, and regulation and integration of metabolism.

Application of learned strategies in meaningful community service through collaborative tasks performed at various community programs. Service learning activities are aimed at enriching the life experiences of students through civic responsibility and community outreach.

Nutrition Care Process Practicum. A problem-based approach to dietetics practice using case simulations and studies; application of basic nutritional assessment skills, nutritional diagnosis, intervention, and monitoring in different settings; practice skills in counseling and nutrition education. Theories and principles related to the foodservice, systems management including leadership, decision-making, human resources, and financial management of operations.

Medical Nutrition Therapy I. Pathophysiology and the application of the nutritional care process in the treatment of simple human diseases and conditions, part 1. Nutrition-related issues in public health, various community resources, agencies, and programs involved in health promotion and disease prevention.

Nutrition in Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Medical Nutrition Therapy II. Continuation of Advanced Medical Nutrition I; and review of the pathophysiology and the application of the nutritional care process in the treatment of more complex human disease and conditions. Current Issues in Nutrition. In-depth discussion and analysis of emerging trends, concepts, and controversies in nutritional sciences, including application of evidence-based principles in the discussion. Independent Study in Nutrition and Dietetics.

An exploration of topics of interest to the student in Nutrition and Dietetics. Students work under the close supervision of a faculty member to conduct research, intense study, or a project related to the selected topic. Introduction to Public Health. Introduces students to the discipline of public health. It will cover a variety of disciplines to the basic tenets of public health.

The course will also cover the role of public health in a global society. Data Management in Public Health. Study of the skills required to design, organize and implement a data management system in public health applications. It will cover an introduction to data preparation for statistical analysis, development of organizational tools, methods of data acquisition, data collection form design, principles of database development, quality control of data, and data security.

Provides the student with basic knowledge about epidemiological applications in a behavioral area. It covers behavioral and social environmental issues related to disease etiology, premature morbidity and mortality patterns.

Provides an overview of the epidemiology of specific health-related behaviors, the relationships between these behaviors and health outcomes, and available evidence for the effectiveness and appropriateness of various approaches to modification of these behaviors. Utilizes case discussion seminars to appraise the investigative methods and research designs for studying disease outbreaks and new epidemics. Historical and current cases will include examples of disease outbreaks e.

In Alaska, the gray wolf population is estimated at 6,—7,, and can be legally harvested during hunting and trapping seasons, with bag limits and other restrictions. As of , there are wolves in 28 packs in Yellowstone, and wolves in 25 packs in Idaho. Reintroduced Mexican wolves in Arizona and New Mexico are protected under the ESA and, as of late , number 28 individuals in eight packs.

Viral diseases carried by wolves include rabies , canine distemper , canine parvovirus , infectious canine hepatitis , papillomatosis , and canine coronavirus.

Infected wolves do not show any fear of humans, with most documented wolf attacks on people being attributed to rabid animals. Although canine distemper is lethal in dogs, it has not been recorded to kill wolves, except in Canada and Alaska. The canine parvovirus, which causes death by dehydration , electrolyte imbalance , and endotoxic shock or sepsis , is largely survivable in wolves, but can be lethal to pups.

Wolves may catch infectious canine hepatitis from dogs, though there are no records of wolves dying from it.

Papillomatosis has been recorded only once in wolves, and likely doesn't cause serious illness or death, though it may alter feeding behaviors. The canine coronavirus has been recorded in Alaskan wolves, with infections being most prevalent in winter months. Bacterial diseases carried by wolves include brucellosis , lyme disease , leptospirosis , tularemia , bovine tuberculosis , [] listeriosis , anthrax and foot and mouth disease.

While adult wolves tend not to show any clinical signs, it can severely weaken the pups of infected females. Although lyme disease can debilitate individual wolves, it does not appear to have any significant effect on wolf populations. Leptospirosis can be contracted through contact with infected prey or urine, and can cause fever , anorexia , vomiting, anemia , hematuria , icterus , and death. Wolves living near farms are more vulnerable to the disease than those living in the wilderness, probably because of prolonged contact with infected domestic animal waste.

Wolves may catch tularemia from lagomorph prey, though its effect on wolves is unknown. Although bovine tuberculosis is not considered a major threat to wolves, it has been recorded to have once killed two wolf pups in Canada. Wolves carry ectoparasites and endoparasites , with wolves in the former Soviet Union having been recorded to carry at least 50 species.

In areas where wolves inhabit pastoral areas, the parasites can be spread to livestock. Wolves are often infested with a variety of arthropod exoparasites, including fleas , ticks , lice , and mites. The most harmful to wolves, particularly pups, is Sarcoptes scabiei or mange mite , [] though they rarely develop full blown mange , unlike foxes.

Ticks of the genus Ixodes can infect wolves with Lyme disease and Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Other ectoparasites include biting lice, sucking lice and the fleas Pulex irritans and Ctenocephalides canis. Endoparasites known to infect wolves include protozoans and helminths flukes , tapeworms , roundworms and thorny-headed worms.

Of 30, protozoan species, only a few have been recorded to infect wolves: Isospora , Toxoplasma , Sarcocystis , Babesia , and Giardia. Upon reaching maturity, Alaria migrates to the wolf's intestine, but harms it little. Metorchis conjunctus , which enters wolves through eating fish, infects the wolf's liver or gall bladder, causing liver disease , inflammation of the pancreas, and emaciation. Most other fluke species reside in the wolf's intestine, though Paragonimus westermani lives in the lungs.

Tapeworms are commonly found in wolves, as their primary hosts are ungulates, small mammals, and fish, which wolves feed upon. Tapeworms generally cause little harm in wolves, though this depends on the number and size of the parasites, and the sensitivity of the host.

Symptoms often include constipation , toxic and allergic reactions , irritation of the intestinal mucosa , and malnutrition. Infections by the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus in ungulate populations tend to increase in areas with high wolf densities, as wolves can shed Echinoccocus eggs in their feces onto grazing areas.

Wolves can carry over 30 roundworm species, though most roundworm infections appear benign, depending on the number of worms and the age of the host.

Ancylostoma caninum attaches itself on the intestinal wall to feed on the host's blood, and can cause hyperchromic anemia , emaciation, diarrhea , and possibly death. Toxocara canis , a hookworm known to infect wolf pups in utero, can cause intestinal irritation, bloating, vomiting, and diarrhea. Wolves can tolerate low levels of Dirofilaria immitis for many years without showing any ill effects, though high levels can kill wolves through cardiac enlargement and congestive hepatopathy.

Wolves probably become infected with Trichinella spiralis by eating infected ungulates. Nicolla skrjabini , Macrocantorhynchus catulinus , and Moniliformis moniliformis.

Human presence appears to stress wolves, as seen by increased cortisol levels in instances such as snowmobiling near their territory. Old English literature contains several instances of Anglo-Saxon kings and warriors taking on wulf as a prefix or suffix in their names. Wolf-related names were also common among pre-Christian Germanic warriors: Ancient Greek literature is similar: Autolycus "the wolf itself" , Lycurgus "wolf-work". The Latin for "female prostitute" is lupa , and the most famous brothel in Pompeii was the Lupanar.

The wolf is a common motif in the foundational mythologies and cosmologies of peoples throughout Eurasia and North America corresponding to the historical extent of the habitat of the gray wolf. The obvious attribute of the wolf is its nature of a predator , and correspondingly it is strongly associated with danger and destruction, making it the symbol of the warrior on one hand, and that of the devil on the other.

The modern trope of the Big Bad Wolf is a development of this. The wolf holds great importance in the cultures and religions of the nomadic peoples, both of the Eurasian steppe and of the North American Plains. In many cultures, the identification of the warrior with the wolf totemism gave rise to the notion of Lycanthropy , the mythical or ritual identification of man and wolf. Aesop featured wolves in several of his fables , playing on the concerns of Ancient Greece 's settled, sheep-herding world.

His most famous is the fable of The Boy Who Cried Wolf , which is directed at those who knowingly raise false alarms, and from which the idiomatic phrase " to cry wolf " is derived. Some of his other fables concentrate on maintaining the trust between shepherds and guard dogs in their vigilance against wolves, as well as anxieties over the close relationship between wolves and dogs. Although Aesop used wolves to warn, criticize and moralize about human behavior, his portrayals added to the wolf's image as a deceitful and dangerous animal.

Although portrayed as loyal, honest and moral, Isengrim is forever the victim of Reynard's wit and cruelty, often dying at the end of each story. The tale of Little Red Riding Hood , first written in by Charles Perrault , is largely considered to have had more influence than any other source of literature in forging the wolf's negative reputation in the western world.

The wolf in this story is portrayed as a potential rapist , capable of imitating human speech. Tolstoy's War and Peace and Chekhov's Peasants both feature scenes in which wolves are hunted with hounds and borzois.

Although credited with having changed popular perceptions on wolves by portraying them as loving, cooperative and noble, it has been criticized for its idealization of wolves and its factual inaccuracies. The wolf is a frequent charge in English armory. It is illustrated as a supporter on the shields of Lord Welby , Rendel , and Viscount Wolseley , and can be found on the coat of arms of Lovett and the vast majority of the Wilsons and Lows.

The demi-wolf is a common crest , appearing in the arms and crests of members of many families, including that of the Wolfes , whose crest depicts a demi-wolf holding a crown in its paws, in reference to the assistance the family gave to Charles II during the battle of Worcester. Wolf heads are common in Scottish heraldry , particularly in the coats of Clan Robertson and Skene. The wolf is the most common animal in Spanish heraldry , and is often depicted as carrying a lamb in its mouth, or across its back.

It is the unofficial symbol of the spetsnaz , and serves as the logo of the Turkish Grey Wolves. Livestock depredation has been one of the primary reasons for hunting wolves, and can pose a severe problem for wolf conservation: Being the most abundant carnivores, feral and free-ranging dogs have the greatest potential to compete with wolves. A review of the studies in the competitive effects of dogs on sympatric carnivores did not mention any research on competition between dogs and wolves.

Wolves kill dogs on occasion, with some wolf populations relying on dogs as an important food source. Wolves may display unusually bold behavior when attacking dogs accompanied by people, sometimes ignoring nearby humans.

Large hunting dogs such as Swedish elkhounds are more likely to survive wolf attacks because of their better ability to defend themselves. Although the numbers of dogs killed each year are relatively low, it induces a fear of wolves entering villages and farmyards to take dogs. In many cultures, there are strong social and emotional bonds between humans and their dogs that can be seen as family members or working team members. The loss of a dog can lead to strong emotional responses with demands for more liberal wolf hunting regulations.

Dogs that are employed to guard sheep help to mitigate human—wolf conflicts, and are often proposed as one of the non-lethal tools in the conservation of wolves. The fear of wolves has been pervasive in many societies, though humans are not part of the wolf's natural prey.

Predatory attacks attacks by wolves treating humans as food may be preceded by a long period of habituation , in which wolves gradually lose their fear of humans. The victims are repeatedly bitten on the head and face, and are then dragged off and consumed, unless the wolves are driven off.

Such attacks typically occur only locally, and do not stop until the wolves involved are eliminated. Predatory attacks can occur at any time of the year, with a peak in the June—August period, when the chances of people entering forested areas for livestock grazing or berry and mushroom picking increase, [24] though cases of non-rabid wolf attacks in winter have been recorded in Belarus , Kirov and Irkutsk oblasts, Karelia and Ukraine.

The majority of victims of predatory wolf attacks are children under the age of 18 and, in the rare cases where adults are killed, the victims are almost always women. Cases of rabid wolves are low when compared to other species, as wolves do not serve as primary reservoirs of the disease, but can be infected by animals such as dogs, jackals and foxes.

Incidents of rabies in wolves are very rare in North America, though numerous in the eastern Mediterranean , Middle East and Central Asia. Wolves apparently develop the "furious" phase of rabies to a very high degree which, coupled with their size and strength, makes rabid wolves perhaps the most dangerous of rabid animals, [24] with bites from rabid wolves being 15 times more dangerous than those of rabid dogs.

Most rabid wolf attacks occur in the spring and autumn periods. Unlike with predatory attacks, the victims of rabid wolves are not eaten, and the attacks generally only occur on a single day.

The victims are chosen at random, though the majority of cases involve adult men. In the half-century up to , there were eight fatal attacks in Europe and Russia, and more than in south Asia. Wolves are difficult to hunt because of their elusiveness, sharp senses, high endurance, and ability to quickly incapacitate and kill hunting dogs. This method relies heavily on the wolf's fear of human scents, though it can lose its effectiveness when wolves become accustomed to the smell.

Wild wolves are sometimes kept as exotic pets and, in some rarer occasions, as working animals. Although closely related to domesticated dogs , wolves do not show the same tractability as dogs in living alongside humans, and generally, much more work is required in order to obtain the same amount of reliability. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Redirected from Gray wolf. This article is about the gray wolf, canis lupus , and its subspecies. For other species of wolf and other uses, see Wolf disambiguation. For other uses, see Grey Wolf disambiguation.

Middle Pleistocene — present , years BP [1]. Linnaeus , [3]. Subspecies of Canis lupus. Evolution of the wolf. List of gray wolf populations by country. Wolves in folklore, religion and mythology. Wolf attacks on humans and List of wolf attacks.

Wolf hunting and Wolf hunting with dogs. Human uses of hunted wolves. Wolves as pets and working animals. However, neither dogs nor dingoes are referred to as gray wolves. Throughout this article, the term "wolf" will be used to refer collectively to naturally occurring subspecies, especially the nominate subspecies, Canis lupus lupus. This terminology was first used in by Rudolf Schenkel of the University of Basel , who based his findings on researching the behavior of captive gray wolves.

This view on gray wolf pack dynamics was later popularized by L. David Mech in his book The Wolf. He formally disavowed this terminology in , explaining that it was heavily based on the behavior of captive packs consisting of unrelated individuals, an error reflecting the once prevailing view that wild pack formation occurred in winter among independent gray wolves.

Later research on wild gray wolves revealed that the pack is usually a family consisting of a breeding pair and its offspring of the previous 1—3 years. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Tomus I in Latin 10 ed. Retrieved November 23, Gray wolf Canis lupus and allies", in Feldhamer, George A. Wild Mammals of North America: Grey wolf Canis lupus Linnaeus, , pp. Foxes, Wolverhampton Wanderers F.

Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference 3rd ed. Johns Hopkins University Press. Mammals of the Soviet Union Vol. Its Domestication and Behavior. The cautionary case of Bulgarian wolves".

The Fear of Wolves: Norsk institutt for naturforskning NINA. A contribution to the study of wolf-dog hybridization patterns". Mammalian Biology - Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde. Archived from the original PDF on September 24, Retrieved June 2, A new profile for the wolf. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Walker's Mammals of the World. Electrocardiographic consequences of a peripatetic lifestyle in gray wolves Canis lupus. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: PLoS Genetics, 10 7.

Comparative bite force in big biting mammals and the prediction of predatory behaviour in fossil taxa". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Journal of Applied Genetics. Canadian Journal of Zoology. Archived from the original on December 14, Environmental and intrinsic correlates of stress in free-ranging wolves. PLOS One, 10 9.

Decade of the Wolf: The Quarterly Review of Biology. University of California Press. Animal Homosexuality and Natural Diversity. The Wolves of Isle Royale. Fauna of the National Parks of the United States. Ecology and conservation of wolves in a changing world. Retrieved March 16, Social behavior of langur monkeys Presbytis entellus in a high altitude environment.

Wolves Change An Ecosystem". Smithsonian National Zoological Park. Archived from the original on January 24, Retrieved August 10, Conservation Action Plan for the golden jackal Canis aureus L. S; Andriashek, D Mashkour "Hyenas around the cities. Zoology in the Middle East. Retrieved February 20, It's a Lot Like Cats and Dogs". Mammals of the Soviet Union: Carnivora hyaenas and cats , Volume 2.

Archived from the original on February 25, Wild cats of the world , University of Chicago Press, p. American Society of Mammalogists. Archived from the original PDF on June 17, In Large Carnivores and the Conservation of Biodiversity. Archived from the original PDF on March 25, Also available in German: Heinz Staffelbach, Handbuch Schweizer Alpen. Animals in the Third Reich: The New York Times. Retrieved September 4, Kuolleissa susissa vanhoja hauleja" , Iltalehti , March 19, Retrieved May 19, Translated by Kevin White.

Retrieved May 2, Retrieved November 24, Each session began with them pedalling all-out on an exercise bike for six seconds before resting for at least a minute to allow their heart to recover and then giving it their all for another six seconds.

Researchers from Abertay University in Dundee pictured said short sessions of high intensity exercise could help ease the 'astronomical' cost of ill-health in the elderly. Although they began by doing six six-second sprints, by end of the study, they were able to do ten per session — adding up to 60 seconds of activity.

After just six weeks, blood pressure fell by 9 per cent and day-to-day activities were easier, the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society reports. Current guidelines say pensioners need to do at least two and a half hours of cycling or fast walking a week, plus two sessions of yoga, gardening or other activities that strengthen muscles. Dr Babraj said that those who do not have an exercise bike can get the same benefit from six-second runs up a steep hill and added: Andrew Marr has blamed the stroke he suffered on experimenting with high intensity exercise.

He said it could be argued that short, sharp sessions put less strain on the heart than lengthier, less intensive ones. BBC presenter Andrew Marr has blamed the stroke he suffered last year on experimenting with high intensity exercise. Dr Babraj cautioned that people should check with their doctor before embarking on a training programme.

Caroline Abrahams of Age UK said: The views expressed in the contents above are those of our users and do not necessarily reflect the views of MailOnline. Quiz challenges players to name the capital cities of 25 far-flung countries and getting full marks is trickier than you think! Number of homes covered is down in the Carolinas is down compared with five years ago 'Cigarettes, beer and junk food Study finds 'wonder pill' doesn't lower heart attack and stroke risks, and can increase bleeding The forgotten milestones: Instagram account spotlights key moments in LGBT history, educating more than , followers on the most pivotal times in the fight for queer rights 'We've never had signals': Serena Williams adamantly maintains she did not receive coaching during the US Open in her first interview since her controversial defeat Boy, 15, is charged with murdering his father after the year-old's remains were found abandoned in woods in a duffel bag Previous.

How one-minute bursts of exercise can boost health for overs in just six weeks Easier to do tasks such as getting out of chair or carrying shopping Study by Abertay University in Dundee into high intensity exercise It could help ease the 'astronomical' cost of ill-health in the elderly By Fiona Macrae for the Daily Mail Published: Share this article Share.

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