If you've resolved to lose weight in , you might be considering signing up for a commercial diet plan, such as Weight Watchers, Nutrisystem, or Jenny Craig. Food and Drug Administration. Support is available through phone counseling, weekly e-classes with a dietician and tracking tools. Nutritionists praise the portion-control points system: Choose this more extreme plan only if quick weight loss is your priority. Share Tweet Reddit Flipboard Email.
The US FDA reports 50, health problems a year due to dietary supplements  and these often involve bodybuilding supplements. In addition to being potentially harmful, some have argued that there is little evidence to indicate any benefit to using bodybuilding protein or amino acid supplements.
The muscle mass increase was statistically significant but modest - averaging 0. Bodybuilders may supplement their diets with protein for reasons of convenience, lower cost relative to meat and fish products , ease of preparation, and to avoid the concurrent consumption of carbohydrates and fats.
In addition, some argue that bodybuilders, by virtue of their unique training and goals, require higher-than-average quantities of protein to support maximal muscle growth;        however there is no scientific consensus for bodybuilders to consume more protein than the recommended dietary allowance.
Protein powders are the most popular and may have flavoring added for palatability. The powder is usually mixed with water, milk or fruit juice and is generally consumed immediately before and after exercising or in place of a meal. The sources of protein are as follows and differ in protein quality depending on their amino acid profile and digestibility:. Some nutritionists claim that osteoporosis may occur from excessive protein intake because protein can put pressure on the kidneys and lead to bone loss due to calcium leaching.
Some bodybuilders believe that amino acid supplements may benefit muscle development, but consumption of such supplements is unnecessary in a diet that already includes adequate protein intake.
Prohormones are precursors to hormones and are most typically sold to bodybuilders as a precursor to the natural hormone testosterone. This conversion requires naturally occurring enzymes in the body. Side effects are not uncommon, as prohormones can also convert further into DHT and estrogen. To deal with this, many supplements also have aromatase inhibitors and DHT blockers such as chrysin and 4-androstene-3,6,trione.
To date most prohormone products have not been thoroughly studied, and the health effects of prolonged use are unknown. Although initially available over the counter, their purchase was made illegal without a prescription in the US in , and they hold similar status in many other countries. They remain legal, however, in the United Kingdom and the wider European Union. Their use is prohibited by most sporting bodies. Creatine is an organic acid naturally occurring in the body that supplies energy to muscle cells for short bursts of energy as required in lifting weights via creatine phosphate replenishment of ATP.
A number of scientific studies have shown that creatine can improve strength,  energy,  muscle mass, and recovery times. In addition, recent studies have also shown that creatine improves brain function. Creatine increases what is known as cell volumization by drawing water into muscle cells, making them larger. Creatine is sold in a variety of forms, including creatine monohydrate and creatine ethyl ester , amongst others.
Though all types of creatine are sold for the same purposes, there are subtle differences between them, such as price and necessary dosage. Creatine monohydrate is regarded as a necessity by most bodybuilders. Creatine monohydrate is the most cost-effective dietary supplement in terms of muscle size and strength gains.
This can be accomplished by mixing powdered creatine with grape juice, lemonade, or many high glycemic index drinks. Some studies have suggested that consumption of creatine with protein and carbohydrates can have a greater effect than creatine combined with either protein or carbohydrates alone.
The inhibition of exercise-induced skeletal muscle damage by HMB is affected by the time that it is used relative to exercise. Meal replacement products MRPs are either pre-packaged powdered drink mixes or edible bars designed to replace prepared meals.
MRPs are generally high in protein, low in fat, have a low to moderate amount of carbohydrates, and contain a wide array of vitamins and minerals. Some MRPs also contain flax oil powder as a source of essential fatty acids.
MRPs can also contain other ingredients, such as creatine monohydrate , glutamine peptides, L-glutamine , calcium alpha-ketoglutarate , additional amino acids, lactoferrin , conjugated linoleic acid , and medium-chain triglycerides.
A sub-class of MRPs is colloquially known as "weight gainers", which are meal replacement products with a higher carbohydrate: Whereas a MRP will typically have a 0. A thermogenic is a broad term for any supplement that the manufacturer claims will cause thermogenesis , resulting in increased body temperature, increased metabolic rate, and consequently an increased rate in the burning of body fat and weight loss. Until almost every product found in this supplement category comprised the " ECA stack ": However, on February 6, the Food and Drug Administration FDA banned the sale of ephedra and its alkaloid , ephedrine, for use in weight loss formulas.
Several manufacturers replaced the ephedra component of the "ECA" stack with bitter orange or citrus aurantium containing synephrine instead of the ephedrine. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs more medical references for verification or relies too heavily on primary sources. Please review the contents of the article and add the appropriate references if you can.
Unsourced or poorly sourced material may be challenged and removed. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. December Learn how and when to remove this template message. January Learn how and when to remove this template message.
From experimental data to clinical evidence in sarcopenia". HMB is widely used as an ergogenic supplement by young athletes. B; Serrano, J; Hoofnagle, J. Br J Sports Med. Retrieved 1 December While federal law shut the door on regulation of dietary supplements, marketing hype may be leading the popular aids up courthouse steps".
Retrieved December 11, Food and Drug Administration. Nutrisystem is the least expensive meal delivery plan we reviewed Medifast is cheaper, but you have to provide one meal a day on your own.
And the silver-spoon award undoubtedly goes to In The Zone Delivery , a white-glove service for people who'll spare no expense to drop the pounds. Here's how the plans stack up. See the handy chart at the bottom of the page for a side-by-side comparison. The oldest national weight-loss program, its members rave about the encouragement they get at weekly meetings led by former Weight Watchers dieters.
Nutritionists praise the portion-control points system: Each food is assigned points based on its serving size, calories, fiber, and fat; and no foods are forbidden. Your point allowance is based on your weight, height, gender, age, and activity level. A recent clinical study in the New England Journal of Medicine linked group counseling sessions to weight-loss success.
That explains why Weight Watchers has impressive short-term results. A study in the Annals of Internal Medicine showed participants lost an average of about 5 percent of their body weight 10 pounds in six months.
Two years later, they had kept about half the weight off. After that, you get free lifetime membership. The company says members using its online tools in addition to attending meetings lost 50 percent more weight than those going to meetings alone. Cost to lose 20 pounds: We looked at two plans from eDiets — one that offers support alone, and another with meal delivery. You can choose from among more than 20 diet plans, including ones for diabetics and vegetarians.
Online tools let you set goals, plan menus and generate shopping lists. The optional meal delivery service offers freshly prepared, calorie-controlled meals delivered in a cooler. But telephone support has some evidence in its favor: Cost per pound of weight loss: No — for about the same money, other services offer better track records. For the first two weeks, you eat three extremely low-carb meals a day plus two snacks.
You can customize menus, search a database of more than 1, recipes and get a personalized shopping list. Studies have shown that after one year, carb-restricted diets led to greater weight loss and increased heart health than low-fat diets. However, the advantage disappeared over the long term. How much can you expect to lose? Figure on 8 to 13 pounds during the two-week kick-start phase, then 1 to 2 pounds a week thereafter. The Zone diet is mostly meat, fruits, and vegetables.
You eat three meals per day plus two Zone protein-powder snacks. A study of people in the Journal of American Medical Association found the Zone diet helped people achieve modest weight loss after one year, comparable with those on the Atkins , Weight Watchers and Ornish diets, and improved cardiac risk factors.
Pricing information is noticeably, frustratingly absent from the Jenny Craig Web site. You eat three Jenny Craig meals plus a snack per day, and supplement with fruit, vegetables and dairy. Once a week, you get a weigh-in and pep talk with a consultant — who is not a dietician and who earns commissions from selling you products. Jenny Craig has a good track record for short-term weight loss up to one year.
In a UC San Diego clinical trial of dieters funded by Jenny Craig , Jenny Craig clients lost 11 percent of their initial weight after 12 months, compared with 3 percent weight loss by those who were dieting on their own. Shipping is free the first week.