Human nutritions and healthy diets. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. In restrictive technique surgeries, a restriction is created near the fundus of the stomach to reduce the amount of food a patient can consume. Although most grassy and broadleaf plants, including ordinary alfalfa, are killed by Roundup, growers can spray fields of Roundup Ready alfalfa with the glyphosate herbicide and kill the weeds without harming the alfalfa crop. Nutritional consequences of adjustable gastric banding and gastric bypass: Carbon and oxygen are absorbed from the air, while other nutrients are absorbed from the soil. Fibers can also be categorized based on their physical and chemical properties as well as their physiological effects.
Beta Glucan: Health Benefits in Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome
At this time, consensus—including specific postoperative recommended daily allowance guidelines—is needed to ensure the proper postsurgical treatment for patients who have had bariatric surgery—especially gastric bypass surgery. To prevent surgical and other postoperative complications, one study 41 described the implementation of a multidisciplinary team—consisting of a primary care physician, dietician, gastroenterologist, and nursing staff—for patients undergoing bariatric surgery and the subsequent limited complications in patients.
Combined, multidisciplinary teams and consensus guidelines could help physicians provide better nutritional care for this patient population. Metabolic and bariatric surgery [fact sheet]. Accessed September 22, Spanakis E, Gragnoli C. Bariatric surgery, safety and type 2 diabetes [review] [published online ahead of print October 2, ]. Gastric banding or bypass?
A systematic review comparing the two most popular bariatric procedures. National trends in use and outcome of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding [published online ahead of print August 19, ]. Surg Obes Relat Dis. Seven cases of gastric perforation in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass patients: Nutritional deficiencies following bariatric surgery: Noncompliance with behavioral recommendations following bariatric surgery. Prevalence of iron, folate, and vitamin B12 deficiency after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass [published online ahead of print January 23, ].
Dietary supplement fact sheet: Nutritional consequences of adjustable gastric banding and gastric bypass: Reversible peripheral neuropathy induced by vitamin B12 deficiency [in French] [published online ahead of print January 25, ]. Iverson D, McKenzie M. Neurologic complications of gastric bypass surgery for morbid obesity [letter].
Nutritional and metabolic complications of bariatric surgery [review]. Am J Med Sci. Oh R, Brown DL. Vitamin B12 deficiency [review]. Dietary intake pattern relates to plasma folate and homocysteine concentrations in the Framingham Heart Study.
Accessed September 9, Sensitivity of serum methylmalonic acid and total homocysteine determinations for diagnosing cobalamin and folate deficiencies. Diagnostic value of the mean corpuscular volume in the detection of vitamin B12 deficiency [review]. Scand J Clin Lab Invest.
Folate intake and food sources in the US population. Am J Clin Nutr. Role of folic acid in atherosclerosis after kidney transplant: Folic acid antagonists during pregnancy and the risk of birth defects. N Engl J Med. A nutrient that is able to limit plant growth according to Liebig's law of the minimum is considered an essential plant nutrient if the plant cannot complete its full life cycle without it. There are 16 essential plant soil nutrients, besides the three major elemental nutrients carbon and oxygen that are obtained by photosynthetic plants from carbon dioxide in air, and hydrogen , which is obtained from water.
Plants uptake essential elements from the soil through their roots and from the air consisting of mainly nitrogen and oxygen through their leaves. Green plants obtain their carbohydrate supply from the carbon dioxide in the air by the process of photosynthesis.
Carbon and oxygen are absorbed from the air, while other nutrients are absorbed from the soil. These hydrogen ions displace cations attached to negatively charged soil particles so that the cations are available for uptake by the root. In the leaves, stomata open to take in carbon dioxide and expel oxygen. The carbon dioxide molecules are used as the carbon source in photosynthesis.
Although nitrogen is plentiful in the Earth's atmosphere, very few plants can use this directly. Most plants, therefore, require nitrogen compounds to be present in the soil in which they grow.
This is made possible by the fact that largely inert atmospheric nitrogen is changed in a nitrogen fixation process to biologically usable forms in the soil by bacteria. Plant nutrition is a difficult subject to understand completely, partially because of the variation between different plants and even between different species or individuals of a given clone. Elements present at low levels may cause deficiency symptoms, and toxicity is possible at levels that are too high.
Furthermore, deficiency of one element may present as symptoms of toxicity from another element, and vice versa. Canada's Food Guide is an example of a government-run nutrition program. Produced by Health Canada , the guide advises food quantities, provides education on balanced nutrition, and promotes physical activity in accordance with government-mandated nutrient needs.
Like other nutrition programs around the world, Canada's Food Guide divides nutrition into four main food groups: Dietary and physical activity guidelines from the USDA are presented in the concept of MyPlate , which superseded the food pyramid , which replaced the Four Food Groups.
Department of Health and Human Services provides a sample week-long menu that fulfills the nutritional recommendations of the government. Governmental organisations have been working on nutrition literacy interventions in non-primary health care settings to address the nutrition information problem in the U.
The FNP has developed a series of tools to help families participating in the Food Stamp Program stretch their food dollar and form healthful eating habits including nutrition education.
It is designed to assist limited-resource audiences in acquiring the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and changed behavior necessary for nutritionally sound diets, and to contribute to their personal development and the improvement of the total family diet and nutritional well-being.
Launched in , this program promotes lifelong healthful eating patterns and physically active lifestyles for children and their families. It is an interactive educational program designed to help prevent childhood obesity through classroom activities that teach children healthful eating habits and physical exercise. Nutrition is taught in schools in many countries. In England and Wales , the Personal and Social Education and Food Technology curricula include nutrition, stressing the importance of a balanced diet and teaching how to read nutrition labels on packaging.
In many schools, a Nutrition class will fall within the Family and Consumer Science or Health departments. In some American schools, students are required to take a certain number of FCS or Health related classes.
Nutrition is offered at many schools, and, if it is not a class of its own, nutrition is included in other FCS or Health classes such as: In many Nutrition classes, students learn about the food groups, the food pyramid, Daily Recommended Allowances, calories, vitamins, minerals, malnutrition, physical activity, healthful food choices, portion sizes, and how to live a healthy life.
In the US, Registered dietitian nutritionists RDs or RDNs  are health professionals qualified to provide safe, evidence-based dietary advice which includes a review of what is eaten, a thorough review of nutritional health, and a personalized nutritional treatment plan. They also provide preventive and therapeutic programs at work places, schools and similar institutions. Certified Clinical Nutritionists or CCNs, are trained health professionals who also offer dietary advice on the role of nutrition in chronic disease, including possible prevention or remediation by addressing nutritional deficiencies before resorting to drugs.
These Board Certified Nutritionists typically specialize in obesity and chronic disease. In order to become board certified, potential CNS candidate must pass an examination, much like Registered Dieticians. This exam covers specific domains within the health sphere including; Clinical Intervention and Human Health.
The study found that health literacy increases with education and people living below the level of poverty have lower health literacy than those above it.
Another study examining the health and nutrition literacy status of residents of the lower Mississippi Delta found that 52 percent of participants had a high likelihood of limited literacy skills. For example, only 12 percent of study participants identified the My Pyramid graphic two years after it had been launched by the USDA.
The study also found significant relationships between nutrition literacy and income level and nutrition literacy and educational attainment  further delineating priorities for the region. Among these problems are the lack of information about food choices, a lack of understanding of nutritional information and its application to individual circumstances, limited or difficult access to healthful foods, and a range of cultural influences and socioeconomic constraints such as low levels of education and high levels of poverty that decrease opportunities for healthful eating and living.
The links between low health literacy and poor health outcomes has been widely documented  and there is evidence that some interventions to improve health literacy have produced successful results in the primary care setting. More must be done to further our understanding of nutrition literacy specific interventions in non-primary care settings  in order to achieve better health outcomes.
Malnutrition refers to insufficient, excessive, or imbalanced consumption of nutrients by an organism. In developed countries, the diseases of malnutrition are most often associated with nutritional imbalances or excessive consumption. In developing countries, malnutrition is more likely to be caused by poor access to a range of nutritious foods or inadequate knowledge. The aim was to boost nutrition and livelihoods by producing a product that women could make and sell, and which would be accepted by the local community because of its local heritage.
Although under- and over-nutrition are often viewed as human problems, pet animals can be under- or overfed by their owners, domesticated animals can be undernourished for macro- and micro-nutrients, affecting growth and health, and wild animals can be undernourished to the point of starvation and death.
Nutritionism is the view that excessive reliance on food science and the study of nutrition can lead to poor nutrition and to ill health. It was originally credited to Gyorgy Scrinis ,  and was popularized by Michael Pollan. Since nutrients are invisible, policy makers rely on nutrition experts to advise on food choices.
Because science has an incomplete understanding of how food affects the human body, Pollan argues, nutritionism can be blamed for many of the health problems relating to diet in the Western World today. ULs are set a safe fraction below amounts shown to cause health problems.
ULs are part of Dietary Reference Intakes. When too much of one or more nutrients is present in the diet to the exclusion of the proper amount of other nutrients, the diet is said to be unbalanced. High calorie food ingredients such as vegetable oils, sugar and alcohol are referred to as "empty calories" because they displace from the diet foods that also contain protein, vitamins, minerals and fiber.
Research indicates that improving the awareness of nutritious meal choices and establishing long-term habits of healthy eating have a positive effect on cognitive and spatial memory capacity, with potential to increase a student's ability to process and retain academic information.
Some organizations have begun working with teachers, policymakers, and managed foodservice contractors to mandate improved nutritional content and increased nutritional resources in school cafeterias from primary to university level institutions. Health and nutrition have been proven to have close links with overall educational success. There is limited research available that directly links a student's Grade Point Average G.
Additional substantive data is needed to prove that overall intellectual health is closely linked to a person's diet, rather than just another correlation fallacy. Nutritional supplement treatment may be appropriate for major depression , bipolar disorder , schizophrenia , and obsessive compulsive disorder , the four most common mental disorders in developed countries.
Cancer is now common in developing countries. According to a study by the International Agency for Research on Cancer , "In the developing world, cancers of the liver, stomach and esophagus were more common, often linked to consumption of carcinogenic preserved foods, such as smoked or salted food, and parasitic infections that attack organs.
Several lines of evidence indicate lifestyle-induced hyperinsulinemia and reduced insulin function i. For example, hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance are strongly linked to chronic inflammation, which in turn is strongly linked to a variety of adverse developments such as arterial microtrauma and clot formation i.
Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance the so-called metabolic syndrome are characterized by a combination of abdominal obesity , elevated blood sugar , elevated blood pressure , elevated blood triglycerides , and reduced HDL cholesterol. The state of obesity clearly contributes to insulin resistance, which in turn can cause type 2 diabetes.
Virtually all obese and most type 2 diabetic individuals have marked insulin resistance. Although the association between overweight and insulin resistance is clear, the exact likely multifarious causes of insulin resistance remain less clear. It has been demonstrated that appropriate exercise, more regular food intake, and reducing glycemic load see below all can reverse insulin resistance in overweight individuals and thereby lower their blood sugar level , in those with type 2 diabetes.
In addition, reduced leptin signaling to the brain may reduce leptin's normal effect to maintain an appropriately high metabolic rate. In any case, analogous to the way modern man-made pollution may possess the potential to overwhelm the environment's ability to maintain homeostasis , the recent explosive introduction of high glycemic index and processed foods into the human diet may possess the potential to overwhelm the body's ability to maintain homeostasis and health as evidenced by the metabolic syndrome epidemic.
Antinutrients are natural or synthetic compounds that interfere with the absorption of nutrients. Nutrition studies focus on antinutrients commonly found in food sources and beverages. The relatively recent increased consumption of sugar has been linked to the rise of some afflictions such as diabetes, obesity, and more recently heart disease.
Increased consumption of sugar has been tied to these three, among others. In the same time span that obesity doubled, diabetes numbers quadrupled in America. Increased weight, especially in the form of belly fat, and high sugar intake are also high risk factors for heart disease. Elevated amounts of Low-density lipoprotein LDL cholesterol, is the primary factor in heart disease.
In order to avoid all the dangers of sugar, moderate consumption is paramount. Since the Industrial Revolution some two hundred years ago, the food processing industry has invented many technologies that both help keep foods fresh longer and alter the fresh state of food as they appear in nature.
Cooling is the primary technology used to maintain freshness, whereas many more technologies have been invented to allow foods to last longer without becoming spoiled. These latter technologies include pasteurisation , autoclavation , drying , salting , and separation of various components, all of which appearing to alter the original nutritional contents of food. Pasteurisation and autoclavation heating techniques have no doubt improved the safety of many common foods, preventing epidemics of bacterial infection.
But some of the new food processing technologies have downfalls as well. Modern separation techniques such as milling , centrifugation , and pressing have enabled concentration of particular components of food, yielding flour, oils, juices, and so on, and even separate fatty acids, amino acids, vitamins, and minerals. Inevitably, such large-scale concentration changes the nutritional content of food, saving certain nutrients while removing others.
Heating techniques may also reduce food's content of many heat-labile nutrients such as certain vitamins and phytochemicals, and possibly other yet-to-be-discovered substances. In addition, processed foods often contain potentially harmful substances such as oxidized fats and trans fatty acids. A dramatic example of the effect of food processing on a population's health is the history of epidemics of beri-beri in people subsisting on polished rice. Removing the outer layer of rice by polishing it removes with it the essential vitamin thiamine , causing beri-beri.
Another example is the development of scurvy among infants in the late 19th century in the United States. It turned out that the vast majority of sufferers were being fed milk that had been heat-treated as suggested by Pasteur to control bacterial disease. Pasteurisation was effective against bacteria, but it destroyed the vitamin C.
As mentioned, lifestyle- and obesity-related diseases are becoming increasingly prevalent all around the world. There is little doubt that the increasingly widespread application of some modern food processing technologies has contributed to this development.
The food processing industry is a major part of modern economy, and as such it is influential in political decisions e. In any known profit-driven economy, health considerations are hardly a priority; effective production of cheap foods with a long shelf-life is more the trend.
In general, whole, fresh foods have a relatively short shelf-life and are less profitable to produce and sell than are more processed foods. Thus, the consumer is left with the choice between more expensive, but nutritionally superior, whole, fresh foods, and cheap, usually nutritionally inferior, processed foods. Because processed foods are often cheaper, more convenient in both purchasing, storage, and preparation , and more available, the consumption of nutritionally inferior foods has been increasing throughout the world along with many nutrition-related health complications.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about Nutrition in general. For Nutrition in humans, see Human nutrition. For Nutrition in animals, see Animal nutrition. For nutrition in plants, see Plant nutrition.
For the medical journal, see Nutrition journal. Mineral nutrient and Composition of the human body. List of antioxidants in food. Animal nutrition and Human nutrition. Nutrition portal Food portal. Food Balance Wheel Biology: Bioenergetics Digestion Enzyme Dangers of poor nutrition Deficiency Avitaminosis is a deficiency of vitamins. Boron deficiency medicine Chromium deficiency Iron deficiency medicine Iodine deficiency Magnesium deficiency medicine Diabetes Eating disorders Illnesses related to poor nutrition Malnutrition Obesity Childhood obesity Starvation Food: Dieting Eating Healthy eating pyramid Nutritional rating systems Lists: Diets list List of food additives List of illnesses related to poor nutrition List of life extension related topics List of publications in nutrition List of unrefined sweeteners List of antioxidants List of phytochemicals Nutrients: Dietitian Nutritionist Food Studies Tools: Human Nutrition and Food".
Retrieved 13 December Understanding Nutrition 13 ed. Deficiency, How Much, Benefits, and More. The New York Times. Archived from the original on The Profession of Dietetics. A History of Nutrition. The Riverside Press Houghton Mifflin.
Perspectives in Clinical Research. Eat, Drink, and be Healthy: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change 5 ed. The Journal of Nutrition. Observations on the effect of adding tryptophane to a dietary in which zein is the sole nitrogenous constituent" PDF.
Circulating PYY levels are the lowest in the fasting state and increase following the consumption of a meal, peaking at hours and remaining elevated for several hours. Peripheral PYY administration decreased food intake and body weight gain in rats [ ]. Similarly, it decreased appetite and food intake both in lean and obese humans [ , ]. An increased PYY response was consistently described following the consumption of various soluble dietary fibers. Postprandial PYY clearly increased after the consumption of psyllium-enriched test meals in healthy volunteers [ ].
The consumption of PolyGlycopleX, a novel functional fiber complex manufactured from three dietary fibers to form a highly viscous polysaccharide with high water-holding and gel-forming properties, for 3 weeks resulted in significantly increased fasting PYY levels as compared to the control product in healthy adults [ ].
The direct infusion of short-chain fatty acids into rabbit and rat colons significantly increased PYY secretions [ , ]. The stimulatory effects of short-chain fatty acids on PYY secretions are mainly attributed to a direct interaction between short-chain fatty acids and PYY cells.
In fact, FFA2 also known as GPR43 , the major receptor for short-chain fatty acids, is colocalized with PYY immunoreactive enteroendocrine L cells both in rat ileum and human colon [ , ]. Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Glucagon-like peptide 1 is cosecreted with PYY from the intestinal L cells, encoded by the proglucagon gene [ ].
It is described with a potent incretin effect, stimulating insulin secretion in a glucose-dependent manner. Circulating GLP-1 levels rise following nutrient ingestion, in proportion to the energetic content of the meal [ ].
An acute intracerebroventricular administration of GLP-1 to rodents induced a decline in short-term energy intake [ ], and was associated with a reduced body weight following repeated administration [ ]. Similarly, an intravenous infusion of GLP-1 both in normal weight and in obese subjects resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in food intake [ ]. Variable GLP-1 responses to soluble dietary fiber intake were described, whether elevated, inhibited, or unaffected.
On the other hand, the ingestion of pasta enriched with a small amount of psyllium fiber 1. Such discrepancies in findings could be attributed to differences in the structures and food sources of ingested soluble fibers and their administered doses. Colonic fermentation appears to be essential in explaining GLP-1 release in response to soluble dietary fibers, despite inconsistent findings. Though supplementation with fermentable carbohydrates has been consistently associated with increased colonic proglucagon mRNA expression [ — ], only few studies detected increased plasma GLP-1 circulating levels in parallel [ — , — ].
A strong association between postprandial hydrogen production and plasma GLP-1 concentrations was also reported. On the contrary, others have shown no effect of fermentable carbohydrates on circulating GLP-1 levels, whether acutely [ ] or over a short duration of 6 days [ ]. Based on these findings, the duration of supplementation is an important factor to consider when suggesting fermentation as a basis for soluble fibers-induced GLP-1 release.
A sufficient time of weeks must be given in order to allow adaptation of the gut microbiota to the additional fermentable carbohydrate within the diet for maximal fermentation to take place [ ] and for GLP-1 levels in circulation to be subsequently affected.
Cholecystokinin Cholecystokinin was among the first hormones shown to modulate food intake [ ]. It is secreted from the I cells of the small intestine in response to food ingestion [ ]. Cholecystokinin circulating levels rise rapidly after a meal, reaching a peak within 15 minutes. It was found to reduce food intake when infused both in rodents and humans [ , ].
In fact, plasma CCK levels are strongly associated with subjective measurements of satiety in women [ ]. Limited studies described the interaction between soluble dietary fibers and CCK release.
The role of fermentation and more specifically short-chain fatty acids in regulating CCK release is still poorly understood. In pigs, ileal infusion of short-chain fatty acids did not affect CCK circulating levels [ ].
Ghrelin Ghrelin is the only known orexigenic hormone in the gut. It was initially identified as an endogenous ligand for growth hormone secretagogue receptor GH-SR in rat stomach [ ]. Circulating ghrelin levels increase before meals and fall rapidly after eating [ ]. Both central and peripheral administration of ghrelin increased food intake and body weight in rodents [ , ]. Discrepancies in findings could be explained by variations in the physical and chemical properties of ingested soluble fibers, their different administered doses, and the forms of ghrelin being measured in circulation.
Several mechanisms were suggested to explain fiber-induced ghrelin suppression, most importantly fermentation. Such colonic fermentation may reduce ghrelin via increasing circulating PYY levels. Administration of PYY to humans reduced serum ghrelin levels [ ]. In addition to colonic fermentation, other mechanisms were also hypothesized. A possible inner-gastric pathway may operate through gastric somatostatin, which is released following the consumption of beet fiber in diabetic individuals [ ].
Somatostatin administration decreased ghrelin secretion in rats [ ] and lowered circulating ghrelin levels in humans [ ]. In addition, GLP-1 release in response to soluble fibers is another potential mechanism. Infusion of GLP-1 into isolated rat stomach suppressed ghrelin secretions [ ].
Such satiating capacity appears to be comparable to that of other soluble viscous and fermentable fibers. Short-chain fatty acids affect satiety by primarily modulating the release of various appetite-regulating hormones, including PYY, GLP-1, and ghrelin.
Since research in this area is still limited, such mechanisms necessitate further investigation. Insufficient intake of dietary fiber has been reported worldwide. However, the estimates of fiber intake are highly variable. Based on the results of the Nationwide Food Consumption Survey, a mean dietary fiber intake of Similarly, a mean daily fiber intake of In contrast, Hallfrisch et al.
In Canada, low daily dietary fiber intakes have been also noted. According to Nova Scotia Department of Health [ ], the mean dietary fiber intake was estimated to be Similarly, in a more recent study on healthy Canadian adolescent males, a median dietary fiber intake of In Europe, the estimated national values for dietary fiber intake were found to fall within a narrower range: Thus, fiber intakes worldwide are well below the recommended levels despite the recommendations of several health organizations to increase the consumption of foods with high fiber content.
The introduction of fiber into traditional and processed foods provides one method by which to increase fiber intake [ 81 ]. The best-known examples of functional foods are fermented milks and yoghurts. Several fiber-fortified dairy products are now appearing in market, with inulin being a popular fiber source for such products due to its combined nutritional and technological characteristics [ — ]. Beta glucan is commonly used as a functional ingredient in foods as it is readily available as a byproduct of oat and barley milling and it also provides physiological benefits that are supported by health claims in many jurisdictions.
This polysaccharide is also used as a food ingredient in the form of hydrocolloids [ , ] or as powder using microparticulation [ ]. Oats have been frequently used as an additive in the preparation of cereal products, decreasing water activity and subsequently prolonging durability [ 81 ].
Several oat-based breakfast cereals have experienced great success in the market. These products are readily accepted by consumers. The incorporation of oats into baking products, such as bread, baked goods, and dough, has been widely tested [ 81 ]. Oats are also used as additives in the production of yogurts with increased amount of fiber [ 81 ]. Fiber addition increased the solidity ratio and texture of unsweetened yogurts, accelerated their acidification rate, and increased their viscosity [ ].
Beta glucans selectively support the growth of Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria, both of them being antagonists to pathogenic bacteria in the digestive system [ 12 , ]. Due to its ability to mimic fat characteristics, oat fiber is one of the most effective ingredients in making low-fat meat products.
It can be used to offset the poor quality associated with low-fat beef burgers [ ] as well as low-fat sausages [ ]. One of the major challenges faced by the functional food industry is developing functional foods with an acceptable taste to the average consumer [ ]. Incorporating significant quantities of fiber into food products constitutes a technological challenge due to the possible deleterious effects on textural quality.
The addition of fibers may contribute to modifications in the texture, sensory characteristics, and shelf-life of foods due to their water-binding capacity, gel-forming ability, fat mimetic, antisticking, anticlumping, texturising, and thickening effects [ , ]. Blackcurrant flavored oat milk 0. In addition, the sensory quality of a flavored oat-based fermented product containing 0.
In contrast, when consumed over 5 weeks, oat-based fermented dairy products 0. Food processing alters the physical, chemical, and physiologic characteristics of dietary fibers. These reductions in molecular weight increase with the mixing and fermentation time of the dough [ ].
Anderson declare that there is no conflict of interests. Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism. Indexed in Web of Science. Subscribe to Table of Contents Alerts. Table of Contents Alerts. Abstract Despite the lack of international agreement regarding the definition and classification of fiber, there is established evidence on the role of dietary fibers in obesity and metabolic syndrome.
Introduction Obesity has reached global epidemic proportions with more than one billion adults affected by this chronic disorder [ 1 ]. Characteristics, Definitions, Classifications, and Analytical Methods Scientific and regulatory bodies around the world define fiber differently. Characteristics of Dietary Fibers Four categories of fiber definitions have been identified [ 26 ], each of which addresses a different characteristic of fiber.
Definitions of Dietary Fibers The most recent definitions for fiber generally address at least one of four characteristics: Categorization of recent definitions of fiber based on whether or not a distinction in dietary fiber source is made.
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