Living Soils: The Role of Microorganisms in Soil Health

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Master of Public Health - Coursework
Specialising in business management and advice to agribusiness with a wide range of size and ownership structures including direct financial management of property owned by international investor. Poverty is clearly associated with poor health. Despite mostly stagnant age-standardised rates, the absolute number of YLDs from non-communicable diseases has been growing rapidly across all SDI quintiles, partly because of population growth, but also the ageing of populations. Adjunct Professor Daniel George WOOD Pullenvale Qld For distinguished service to the mining and resource industry, particularly mineral exploration, through contributions as a geologist, academic and in executive roles. Older leaves that touch the ground may sprout plantlets. Income levels generally decline with increased geographic remoteness: Individual sundew species have adapted to a wide variety of environments, including atypical habitats, such as rainforests, deserts D.

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Generally, Noongar made a living by hunting and trapping a variety of game, including kangaroos, possums and wallabies; for people close to the coastal zone or riverine systems, spear-fishing or culling fish in traps was customary. An extensive range of edible wild plants were also available, including yams and wattle seeds. Nuts of the zamia palm , eaten during the Djeran season April—May [4] required extensive treatment to remove its toxicity , and for women may have had a contraceptive effect.

The forebears of the Noongar, as early as 10, BP , utilised quartz , replacing chert flint for spear and knife edges, when the chert deposit was submerged by sea level rise during the Flandrian transgression. Before the arrival of Europeans , the Noongar population has been variously estimated at between 6, and some tens of thousands. As they approached from the west, the newcomers were called djaanga or djanak , meaning "white spirits".

Initially relations were generally cordial. Matthew Flinders recognized the success of his three-week sojourn as due in good part to Noongar diplomacy, and Noongar rituals celebrated their reception of the newcomers in a ceremonial form. An example of such misunderstandings was the Noongar land-management practice of setting fires in early summer, mistakenly seen as an act of hostility by the settlers.

Conversely, the Noongar saw the settlers' livestock as fair game to replace the dwindling stocks of native animals shot indiscriminately by settlers. In June a Whadjuk leader, [11] Yagan , formerly of good standing among the settler authorities and known in the colony for his handsome bearing, "tall, slender, well-fashioned.. Caught and imprisoned, he escaped and was let alone, as though informally reprieved as a native version of William Wallace.

Yagan himself, with a bounty on his head, was ambushed soon afterwards by an year-old settler youth, [11] after he had stopped 2 settlers and asked for flour. Notwithstanding this violence, extraordinary acts of goodwill existed. From August ten Aboriginal prisoners were sent to Rottnest Island known as Wadjemup to the Noongar, possibly meaning "place across the water" [16]. After a short period when both settlers and prisoners occupied the island, the Colonial Secretary announced in June that the island would become a penal establishment for Aboriginal people and was officially designated as such in To " pacify " the Aboriginal population, men were rounded up and chained for offences ranging from spearing livestock, burning the bush or digging vegetables on what had been their own land.

It quickly became a "place of torment, deprivation and death", [19] and it has been estimated that there may be as many as Aboriginal graves on the island, of which five were for prisoners who had been hung. Except for a short period between and , during which the prison was closed, some 3, Aboriginal men and boys, many of them Noongars, but also many others from all parts of the state, were imprisoned.

Highly cultured, very caring, practical and down to earth, Salvado dedicated his life to promoting the humane treatment of the Australian Aboriginals at the mission he created at New Norcia , the territory of the Yued.

The Njunga found refuge under his roof, and he defended many natives up on charges of theft, arguing from Church doctrine that theft was not criminal if dictated by dire necessity. While intent on converting, he encouraged the Noongar to maintain their traditional culture. From to , the lives and lifestyles of Noongar people were subject to the Native Welfare Act. The Federation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Languages website states that out of thirteen dialects spoken by the Noongar people at the time of European settlement, only five still remain.

Noongar people live in many country towns throughout the south-west as well as in the major population centres of Perth , Mandurah , Bunbury , Geraldton , Albany and Esperance. Many country Noongar people have developed long-standing relationships with wadjila white fella[man] [ citation needed ] [f] farmers and continue to hunt kangaroo and gather bush tucker food as well as to teach their children stories about the land.

In a few areas in the south-west, visitors can go on bushtucker walks, trying foods such as kangaroo, emu , quandong jam or relish, bush tomatoes , witchetty grub pâté and bush honey. In Perth, the Noongar believe that the Darling Scarp is said to represent the body of a Wagyl , a snakelike being from the Dreamtime that meandered over the land creating rivers, waterways and lakes.

It is thought that the Wagyl created the Swan River. The Wagyl has been associated with Wonambi naracoutensis , part of the extinct megafauna of Australia that disappeared between 15 and 50, years ago. Also in Perth, Mount Eliza was an important site for the Noongar. It was a hunting site where kangaroos were herded and driven over the edge to provide meat for gathering clans.

In this context, the "clan" is a local descent group — larger than a family but based on family links through a common ancestry. At the base of Mount Eliza is a sacred site where the Wagyl is said to have rested during its journeys.

This site is also the location of the former Swan Brewery which has been a source of contention between local Noongar groups who would like to see the land, which was reclaimed from the river in the late 19th century, "restored" to them and the title-holders who wished to develop the site. A Noongar protest camp existed here for several years in the late s and early s. Noongar culture is particularly strong with the written word.

The plays of Jack Davis are on the school syllabus in several Australian states. Davis' first full-length play Kullark , a documentary on the history of Aboriginals in WA, was first produced in No Sugar, The Dreamers, Barungin: Yirra Yaakin [25] describes itself as the response to the Aboriginal Community's need for positive self-enhancement through artistic expression.

It is a theatre company which strives for community development and which also has a drive to create "exciting, authentic and culturally appropriate indigenous theatre". The Barnett government of Western Australia announced in November that, due to changes in funding arrangements with the Abbott Federal government , it was closing of Aboriginal communities in remote locations.

As a result, Noongars in solidarity with other Aboriginal groups established a refugee camp on Heirisson Island. Despite police action to dismantle the camp twice in , the camp continued until April Despite such state government actions many local governments in the south-west have developed "compacts" or "commitments" with their local Noongar communities to ensure that sites of significance are protected and that the culture is respected.

At the same time, the Western Australian Barnett government, also from November , had been forcing the Aboriginal Cultural Material Committee to deregister Aboriginal sacred sites in Western Australia.

A legal ruling on 1 April overturned the government's actions on some of the sites deregistered which were found to be truly sacred. Elders are increasingly asked on formal occasions to provide a " Welcome to Country " and the first steps of teaching the Noongar language in the general curriculum have been made. In recent years there has been considerable interest in Noongar visual arts.

The 8-metre canvas was commissioned for the festival by representatives of the united elders and families from across the Noongar nation. The Noongar people occupied and maintained the Mediterranean climate lands of the south-west of Western Australia, and made sustainable use of seven biogeographic regions of their territory, namely;. These seven regions have been acknowledged as a biodiversity hot-spot, [29] having a generally greater number of endemic species than most other regions in Australia.

The ecological damage done to this region through clearing, introduced species, by feral animals and non-endemic plants is also severe, and has resulted in a high proportion of plants and animals being included in the categories of rare, threatened and endangered species. In modern times many Aboriginal men were employed intermittently as rabbiters, and rabbit became an important part of Noongar diet in the early 20th century.

The Noongar territory also happens to conform closely with the South-west Indian Ocean Drainage Region, and the use of these water resources played a very important seasonal part in their culture. The Noongar thus have a close connection with the earth and, as a consequence, they divided the year into six distinct seasons that corresponded with moving to different habitats and feeding patterns based on seasonal foods. On 19 September the Federal Court of Australia brought down a judgment which recognised native title in an area over the city of Perth and its surrounds, known as Bennell v State of Western Australia [] FCA In the interim, the Noongar people together will continue to be involved in native title negotiations with the Government of Western Australia , and are represented by the South West Aboriginal Land and Sea Council.

Justice Wilcox's judgment is noteworthy for several reasons. It highlights Perth's wealth of post-European settlement writings which provide an insight into Aboriginal life, including laws and customs, around the time of settlement in and also into the beginning of the last century. These documents enabled Justice Wilcox to find that laws and customs governing land throughout the whole Single Noongar Claim taking in Perth, and many other towns in the greater South West were those of a single community.

The claimants shared a language and had extensive interaction with others in the claim area. Importantly, Justice Wilcox found the Noongar community constituted a united society which had continued to exist despite the disruption resulting from mixed marriage and people being forced off their land and dispersed to other areas as a result of white settlement and later Government policies.

Other native title claims on Noongar lands include: Since the Noongar are largely urbanised or concentrated in major regional towns studies have shown that the direct economic impact of the Noongar community on the WA economy was estimated to range between five and seven hundred million dollars per year.

It has been estimated that this results in the loss of many millions of dollars worth of foregone tourist revenue. As a consequence of the Stolen Generations and problems integrating with modern westernised society, many difficult issues face the present day Noongar.

For example, the Noongar Men of the SouthWest gathering in identified major community problems associated with cultural dispossession such as:. Many of these issues are not unique to the Noongar but in many cases they are unable to receive appropriate government-agency care. The report that was produced after this gathering also stated that Noongar men have a life expectancy of 20 years less than non-Aboriginal men, and go to hospital three times more often. The Noongar still have large extended families and many families have difficulty accessing available structures of sheltered housing in Western Australia.

The Western Australian government has dedicated several areas for the purpose of building communities specifically for the Noongar people, such as the Swan Valley Noongar Community.

The Noongar themselves are tackling their own issues, for example, the Noongar Patrol, which is an Aboriginal Advancement Council initiative. Glen grew up in Perth but regularly travelled to Narembeen to visit Grandparents and relatives which sparked his interest in Agriculture. This led to Ag School in Narrogin followed by four years at Muresk. In November , Glen joined the Planfarm team based out of the Northam office.

Glen has played football in all towns he's worked in and plans to continue this tradition in Northam. Hannah was raised on a mixed crop and livestock farm in Kondinin WA, where her parents and older brother still farm.

She completed her tertiary degree at Muresk in From University Hannah joined the accounting world with RSM Bird Cameron for 2 years, where she was responsible for small business and individual tax returns. In January she made the move to Planfarm to cover benchmarking and business review preparation, where her role has evolved into numerous different areas throughout the company. This involves a 2 year project and the completion of a Postgraduate in Agricultural Consulting through the University of New England.

Hannah and her husband are kept busy doing renovations inside and out, on their 5 acres in Cuballing. She is also a keen horse rider and involved with the Dryandra Regional Equestrian Association and water skier in summer. Carter grew up in the wheatbelt town of Northam, and although not from a large scale farming background, Carter spent many weekends on friends farms and a small family farm. Carter stayed in Northam until high school where he attended Shenton College.

An interest in economics, biological sciences and a growing interest in agriculture combined with a country upbringing, he went on to study a Bachelor of Agribusiness at Curtin university.

Carter graduated from Curtin university in with a Bachelor of Agribusiness degree. Carter looks forward to working with Planfarm and it's clients; building his knowledge and skill set around West Australian agriculture. He has joined Planfarm as a Graduate Consultant after working over the past two budget periods assisting consultants with budget preparation and other tasks.

When Carter is not working, he enjoys an active lifestyle playing a few different social sports and attempting to get out of the city and into country Western Australia to do some camping, hiking, fishing and four-wheel driving. Before this Sang had no idea how vital the agricultural industry was, and this program made her interested in the paddock to plate movement as well as food sustainability.

This prompted her to study a bachelor of Agribusiness from Curtin University which she enjoyed and graduated from in She also loves to travel and explore new places as well as baking. Peter has extensive research and project management experience. A leader of agricultural communications and a herbicide resistant weeds specialist.

This role involves taking AHRI research, as well as other information about managing herbicide resistant weeds, and communicating it to the Australian grains industry. The priority is to keep agronomists updated on the latest research to enable them to continually improve the management of herbicide resistant weeds. Peter is based in Geraldton, and spends some of his time travelling to Perth and around the country to fulfil this role.

Peter grew up in the suburbs of Perth. It was family Easter holidays to Tardun in the north eastern wheatbelt of WA where his uncle managed a large property that sparked his interest in Agriculture. As he grew older, Peter spent more time working on the farm which ultimately led him to study agriculture at university after which he commenced his career in grain cropping. Peter worked as an advisor with the Department of Agriculture in Three Springs and then Geraldton for several years before embarking on two years of backpacking around the world.

From here he worked as an agronomist with Elders covering the Mingenew area before moving back to the Department of Agriculture and Food for thirteen years where he researched and extended herbicide resistant weeds with support from GRDC.

Peter commenced work with Planfarm in January Married to the very beautiful and always delightful Lizzie, and father of the two sweetest girls on the planet, India 7 and Saskia 5. When he is not working or spending time with family he is generally in the ocean either surfing, windsurfing, kite surfing, stand-up paddle boarding, diving or fishing. When the ocean is no good he may even been seen doing an occasional triathlon, playing touch football or playing guitar and singing in the amazing Geraldton cover band, The Blue Bone Gropers.

Hilary has experience in management planning for crop and pasture optimization. Site specific strategic advisor on Pesticides and Herbicides with Rotational and Nutritional expertise. Hilary grew up moving around Victoria and NSW and was associated with farming though family friends. Visiting farms as a child lead to a keen interest in agriculture. After graduating, she worked for Landmark, in Narrogin, for a couple of years developing her agronomic skills Hilary then joined Planfarm in with an excellent science background, having won several scholarships including, the GRDC Undergraduate Honours Scholarship and the Grower Group Alliance Student Scholarship Hilary and her husband live on a farm north east of Cuballing where Hilary will offer a hand on the farm when possible.

In her spare time, she enjoys gardening and working on projects around the house. Dani is experienced in broad-acre crop and pasture management. She provides strategic nutritional and pest management expertise.

Dani grew up on the family farm in Kondinin. After completing high school in Perth, Dani went on to study at UWA where she undertook an honours project with the Australian Herbicide Resistance Initiative researching herbicide resistance in wild radish. Dani joined Planfarm in She currently consults to 30 farm businesses in the wheatbelt and lakes region delivering technical advice with an economical focus for crop and pasture management.

She enjoys working with her clients and seeing them achieve their goals. Outside of work, Dani is often found on a hockey field, or running around the farm with her dog. She is also an avid traveller. Nick McKenna has recently started at Planfarm's Geraldton office, and will be working closely with Richard Quinlan to develop his skills as an agronomist.

Nick grew up on his family property east of Mullewa, where his parents still farm. Going home during school and uni breaks, he got his fair share of time in the paddock and on machinery. At uni, he studied a Bachelor of Science, with a major in Agriculture, which he has mostly completed.

He expects to be finished by the end of this year. Whilst in Colorado, he worked on various projects, ranging from testing the efficacy of Harvest Weed Seed control, to the development of herbicide resistance traits in sunflowers and sorghum.

He also took the opportunity to spend his first November and December away from the farm in the snow, which he thoroughly enjoyed. When he can, he enjoys chocolate milk and most things on two wheels. He is excited about working with Planfarm and delivering value to clients. Jerome specialises in advice, analysis and strategy for grain marketing. With experience in implementation of strategy, including brokerage, optimisation and load allocations. With in depth understanding of client positions, ensuring risk exposures are kept within client thresholds.

During his time there he gained a good understanding of the entire grain marketing system, from the accumulation and logistics of moving the physical grain, the hedging and management of price risk, through to the quality and end user requirements.

After his time at the AWB, Jerome embarked on a 5 year world tour, travelling and working in far flung corners of the globe. Much of the time was spent working for a tourism business in Barcelona, Spain, but he also spent time teaching English, making pizzas, working with charity organisations and even working on a Argentinian ranch as a wannabe gaucho.

Jerome returned from his overseas adventures in and commenced working as grain marketing advisor, based in Geraldton, before moving to Perth in He is very proud of the fact that many of the strong client relationships he formed with farmers back at the AWB in are still alive and strong today and he looks forward to maintaining and growing these relationships for many years to come. It would come of little surprise that Jerome's biggest passions are travelling and culture and loves nothing more than getting out of his comfort zone to challenge himself and expand his horizons.

When his feet are on the ground in WA he enjoys the usual myriad of sport and socialising, in particular tennis, football heave ho , hockey and endurance events. Nick has national crop variety grain marketing and research experience. He is an expert in individual marketing planning based on profit targets with return optimisation through depth of knowledge in seed varieties and agronomy research.

Nick grew up on the family farm in Kukerin where he spent the large majority of his time until mid-way through At the end of after five years of boarding school in Perth he spent a year working full time on the family farm. He then attended the Muresk Institute of Agriculture for the next two years, drifting home for seeding, harvest, cricket and football. Deciding to have a break from studies, Nick spent the next two years gaining industry experience working for Elders in Cunderdin, before returning to complete the final two years of study in , graduating at the end of Following graduation, Nick spent 10 months on the family farm and then travelled to Europe from a London base, having some memorable adventures before returning home for header duties in Nick joined Agrisearch as a Project Biologist based in York for two years managing various agronomic research trials.

Nick has a young family and when the opportunity presents he can usually be found surfing or playing Masters Football in winter. When not in the water or changing nappies Nick follows most sports particualrly supporting the mighty Geelong Cats in the AFL. Emily offers timely and tailored grain marketing advice. Along with individualized strategies to manage price risk in the face of production risk and time-saving brokerage and position management experience.

Grain marketing - general advice regarding cost of production, sales planning and grain marketing alternatives. Emily grew up in Zimbabwe and was associated with farming through her grandparents' farm and a number of years spent living on a tea estate. She moved to Australia in Emily joined Planfarm as a grain marketing advisor at the start of , and was originally at our Wembley office.

She is now based out the Northam Office. After finishing university, she worked at the Reserve Bank for four years looking at commodity prices and exports, as well as investment. Moving into grain marketing, she brings with her an understanding of financial markets and derivatives products. She notes that the economics of supply, demand and price applies the world over, be it specific industries like grain markets, or whole economies.

Emily's interests vary on what is available - ballet isn't as easy to come across out in the country so failing that, netball and golf with a bit of gardening and helping her husband with the sheep will typically fill her weekends up. Sophie offers timely and tailored grain marketing advice.

Bachelor of Commerce Economics , Bond University. This enabled her to fast-track her degree to complete it in two years. Whilst at Bond, Sophie enjoyed participating in a range of sports, including beach volleyball and basketball. She also completed an internship at a financial services firm, where she gained knowledge of a range of financial products. After graduation, Sophie spent six months working on the family farm, driving the chaser-bin during harvest and helping with sheep work.

Sophie joined the Planfarm Marketing team at the Floreat office in October Sophie enjoys travelling, photography and is a keen gardener. On weekends, she tries to visit the farm as much as possible, to tend to her ever-growing flock of pet sheep.

She has recently become a novice apiarist beekeeper and is likely to remain one until stung. Nic has in-depth and wide-ranging expertise in all aspects of grain marketing including brokerage, strategy, individual market planning, logistics and market analysis. Nic actually started his career in Grain Marketing with Planfarm for the harvest in a support role during his university break.

Nic enjoys the close relationships gained with dealing with farmers and helping them to achieve their goals through all aspects of Grain Marketing. Nic has strong experience in domestic markets and logistics and is looking forward to helping Planfarm Clients in these areas. Nic is also licensed to give personal financial advice after completing his RG requirements.

Nic does whatever his wife wants to do which is currently getting himself and house prepared for the birth of his first child in November Otherwise Nic likes spending time socialising with friends and family, whether that be in Perth, the country or further abroad. Colin's vast experience includes business profile analysis with Company, Product Marketing and Branding. Client relationships, recruitment and retention. Colin has a varied background commencing with working in the education sector teaching , running his own business, working in the sports industry and spending quite a few years in the area of Business Development.

The skill set Colin brings to Planfarm has allowed him to work in a number of areas and value add to Planfarm including:. Away from the working environment Colin is kept extremely busy with his 4 boys. All are heavily involved in sport with football, surfing and cricket.

Free weekends and holidays are taken up with their love of the outdoors, camping, snorkelling, surfing, beaching, bushwalkiing, swagging, tenting and sight seeing. Travel provides a great escape from the rotuine and committment of work and sport. Home Our Team By position. By position By region Planfarm provides a one stop professional service utilising Farm Business Consultants, Agronomists and Grain Marketers with 's of years' combined experience in the Western Australian farming landscape.

Purchased the first farm in then expanded to Notham, York and Toodyay with the farm currently being 6, hectares and comprising a large wheat and Canola grain business. Has been involved in the commercial property industry for over 30 years. On the board of WA meat marketing Co Op for 11 years resigning in On various business boards with equity in several businesses.

Currently Chairman of Planfarm. Graeme McConnell Managing Director. Professional Expertise I am a director and senior consultant with Planfarm along with being one of the larger shareholders of the group. Status Married with 2 children 15 and 11 years of age. Currently consult to 35 farm businesses spread across the Northern Agriculture Region.

Work with farm businesses delivering all the technical aspects of crop and animal production. The focus of this work is to improve the clients water use efficiency which is a indicator of cropping efficiency.

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