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Just another reason investors should be wary of those who claim that the free markets - not regulators - are best at making conflicts go away. During one meeting, the board was described as 'a collection of failed CEOs,' and the group was blamed for not prompting GM management to move faster in restructuring the company. From the time Mr. Retrieved September 2, We speak from personal experience. Was he advising the board? Repeated efforts to revisit decisions and even 'to argue about the minutes' distracted the board, hurt its efficiency and explains 'why we asked him to step off the board,' Mr.
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Furthermore, the lipid solubility of the nonionized species is slight as shown by its low logP value log 10 of the distribution coefficient of the nonionized form between octanol and water of These chemical parameters indicate low lipophilicity and, consequently, rapid passive diffusion of metformin through cell membranes is unlikely.
As a result of its low lipid solubility it requires the transporter SLC22A1 in order for it to enter cells. More lipophilic derivatives of metformin are presently under investigation with the aim of producing prodrugs with superior oral absorption than metformin. Metformin is not metabolized. It is cleared from the body by tubular secretion and excreted unchanged in the urine; metformin is undetectable in blood plasma within 24 hours of a single oral dose. The biguanide class of antidiabetic medications, which also includes the withdrawn agents phenformin and buformin , originates from the French lilac or goat's rue Galega officinalis , a plant used in folk medicine for several centuries.
Metformin was first described in the scientific literature in , by Emil Werner and James Bell, as a product in the synthesis of N , N -dimethylguanidine. Interest in metformin resumed at the end of the s. In , metformin, unlike some other similar compounds, was found not to decrease blood pressure and heart rate in animals.
Garcia  used metformin he named it Fluamine to treat influenza; he noted the medication "lowered the blood sugar to minimum physiological limit" and was not toxic. Garcia believed metformin to have bacteriostatic , antiviral , antimalarial , antipyretic and analgesic actions. Instead he observed antiviral effects in humans. French diabetologist Jean Sterne studied the antihyperglycemic properties of galegine , an alkaloid isolated from Galega officinalis , which is related in structure to metformin and had seen brief use as an antidiabetic before the synthalins were developed.
Sterne was the first to try metformin on humans for the treatment of diabetes; he coined the name "Glucophage" glucose eater for the medication and published his results in Metformin became available in the British National Formulary in It was sold in the UK by a small Aron subsidiary called Rona.
Broad interest in metformin was not rekindled until the withdrawal of the other biguanides in the s. Metformin was approved in Canada in ,  but did not receive approval by the U. Liquid metformin is sold under the name Riomet in India. Metformin IR immediate release is available in , , and mg tablets. All of these are available as generic medications in the U. Metformin SR slow release or XR extended release was introduced in It is available in , , and mg strengths, mainly to counteract common gastrointestinal side effects, as well as to increase compliance by reducing pill burden.
No difference in effectiveness exists between the two preparations. When used for type 2 diabetes, metformin is often prescribed in combination with other medications. Several are available as fixed-dose combinations , to reduce pill burden and simplify administration. A combination of metformin and rosiglitazone was released in and sold as Avandamet by GlaxoSmithKline. By it had become the most popular metformin combination.
In , the stock of Avandamet was removed from the market, after inspections showed the factory where it was produced was violating good manufacturing practices.
However, following a meta-analysis in that linked the medication's use to an increased risk of heart attack ,  concerns were raised over the safety of medicines containing rosiglitazone. In September the European Medicines Agency EMA recommended that the medication be suspended from the European market because the benefits of rosiglitazone no longer outweighed the risks. In November , the FDA lifted its earlier restrictions on rosiglitazone after reviewing the results of the RECORD clinical trial a six-year, open label randomized control trial , which failed to show elevated risk of heart attack or death associated with the medication.
Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors inhibit dipeptidyl peptidase-4 and thus reduce glucagon and blood glucose levels. In Europe, Canada, and elsewhere metformin combined with linagliptin is marketed under the trade name Jentadueto. Sulfonylureas act by increasing insulin release from the beta cells in the pancreas. Metformin is available combined with the sulfonylureas glipizide Metaglip and glibenclamide US: Meglitinides are similar to sulfonylureas. The combination of metformin with pioglitazone and glibenclamide  is available in India as Triformin.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. B No risk in non-human studies. S4 Prescription only CA: Pharmacy and pharmacology portal Medicine portal. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. A review of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic use in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus".
Archived from the original on 24 December Retrieved 2 January A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis". Annals of Internal Medicine. Archived from the original on Archived PDF from the original on First choice for monotherapy: Analogue-based Drug Discovery II. Herb, nutrient, and drug interactions: Archived PDF from the original on 13 December Retrieved 8 December Archived from the original on 3 August Retrieved 11 January Blake; Stanifer, John W.
Diab Vasc Dis Res. International Journal of Obesity. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Current Medical Diagnosis and Treatment 49th ed. Bristol-Myers Squibb Company; N Engl J Med. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Scientific Advisory Committee Opinion Paper Archived from the original PDF on European Journal of Endocrinology. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica.
Journal of Human Reproductive Sciences. Diabetes research and clinical practice. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis".
The Scientific World Journal. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. This article incorporates text by Dan J. Siskind, Janni Leung, Anthony W.
Royal College of Radiologists. Retrieved October 26, through the Internet Archive. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. New Preparations and Nonglycemic Benefits". Pharmacology of the Endocrine Pancreas". J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. West J Emerg Med. Br J Clin Pharmacol. Food and Drug Administration. Archived PDF from the original on September 22, Drug Metabol Drug Interact.
Therapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. A New Hypoglycemic Agent". J Am Chem Soc. Patent FR in French. Die Blutzuckersenkende Wirkung der Biguanides". Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft B: Br J Pharmacol Chemother.
Philippines Department of Science and Technology. J Philippine Med Assoc. The research group scores the sentiment of media coverage by reviewing more than twenty million news and blog sources. Accern ranks coverage of publicly-traded companies on a scale of -1 to 1, with scores nearest to one being the most favorable. NutriSystem earned a media and rumor sentiment score of 0. They also assigned news stories about the company an impact score of View Recent Headlines for NutriSystem. NutriSystem's stock is owned by a variety of of retail and institutional investors.
Top institutional investors include BlackRock Inc. Shares of NTRI can be purchased through any online brokerage account. Popular online brokerages with access to the U. NutriSystem employs workers across the globe. Enter your email address below to receive a concise daily summary of analysts' upgrades, downgrades and new coverage with MarketBeat. Sign in or create an account to add this stock to your watchlist.
The company offers weight loss programs that consist primarily of a pre-packaged food program, digital tools, and counseling. It also provides Nutrisystem Lean13 program, which provides weight loss, and support and counseling services; the South Beach Diet, a weight-loss program; and Nutrisystem 5-day kit, a? D' kit that offers individuals with or at risk of type 2 diabetes.
In addition, the company provides SmartCarb and PowerFuel products, including meal replacement bars, powder shakes, baked goods and snacks; and Nutrisystem D Program, a weight loss program designed to produce gradual weight loss. It sells its pre-packaged foods to weight loss program participants directly through the Internet and telephone; a television shopping network; and retailers.
Here are some recent quotes from research analysts about NutriSystem stock: From the flagship Nutrisystem brand comes the clinically-tested Nutrisystem Lean13 program, designed to deliver weight loss of up to 13 pounds and seven inches in the first month. South Beach Diet became an all-new structured meal delivery weight-loss program following the acquisition of the brand.
Additional Nutrisystem branded weight-loss products include Fast 5 and Turbo 10, as well as multi-day kits and individual products at select retail outlets.