The only predictor of event free survival is extent of abdominal disease at diagnosis. Meckel's diverticulum MD , the pathologic structure resulting from persistence of the embryonic vitelline duct yolk stalk , is the most prevalent congenital anomaly of the GI tract. Chamberlain was greeted with cheers when he landed in London, saying it brought "peace for our time". In cases of midgut volvulus without malrotation, aganglionosis has to be ruled out. Rectal biopsy - a pathologist competent in reading the slides is essential and should not be taken for granted. Primary closure with correction of the malrotation should be attempted whenever possible.
Found in meat and dairy products, vitamin B 12 plays an important role in the growth and replication of cells as well as nervous system functioning. The recommended daily allowance of this nutrient is 2. Bariatric patients are at an increased risk of developing vitamin B 12 deficiency because their digestive tracts have been altered in such a way as to interfere with the natural absorption of this vitamin.
Intrinsic factor—released by the parietal cells in the stomach—binds with vitamin B 12 in the duodenum. The binded vitamin B 12 is then absorbed in the ileum.
Common nutritional deficiencies in patients who have had gastric bypass surgery. Specific recommendations for bariatric patients are not available. Dietary supplement fact sheets. Office of Dietary Supplements Web site. Accessed October 20, Vitamin B 12 is a cofactor in two reactions: Therefore, a decrease in vitamin B 12 can result in higher levels of methylmalonic acid and homocysteine. If physicians are persistent about checking vitamin B 12 levels and, if necessary, methylmalonic acid levels, then serious deficiencies can often be prevented in patients.
If a vitamin B 12 deficiency is found, then replacement with oral or injection forms of vitamin B 12 may be necessary. As one of the organic building blocks necessary for all human cells, folate is needed by the body to make new cells such as neurons and red blood cells. Folate and its synthetic form, folic acid, are found in various foods, including fortified cereals, legumes, leafy vegetables, and other fruits and vegetables.
Folate absorption depends primarily on carrier transport mechanisms across the intestinal wall, pH level, and saturation points, with maximum folate absorption occurring at lower pH concentrations.
Processes that interfere with the intestinal wall, such as intestinal surgery, bacterial overgrowth, and celiac sprue, can reduce zinc absorption and cause zinc deficiency. Another essential nutrient for the human body is iron, a metallic element found in red meat and vegetables. The recommended daily allowance of iron is about 8 mg to 18 mg daily, depending on age and sex. Although the precise mechanism of iron absorption is unclear, the duodenum and jejunum of the small intestine appear to play a primary role.
Iron deficiency remains the most common known cause of anemia in addition to being the most common known nutritional deficiency among adults. As a nutrient involved in various enzymatic reactions, copper is a strong antioxidant essential to the human body. It is found in meat, vegetables, legumes, and whole grains. Copper deficiencies may accompany iron deficiencies. Individuals with copper deficiency may develop progressive difficulty walking, increased muscle tone or spasticity, heart enlargement, skin changes, or neuropathy.
Absorption of copper occurs primarily in the small intestine. There have been multiple reports 35 , 36 of calcium and vitamin D deficiency and hyperparathyroidism in patients who have had recent gastric bypass surgery. Aggressive supplementation of calcium and vitamin D has been recommended around the time of the operation to combat these adverse effects.
Calcium absorption and metabolism are carefully regulated by levels of calcium, vitamin D, and parathyroid hormone. Because these levels may be altered after bariatric surgery, careful monitoring is needed to maintain homeostasis. Good sources of calcium include dairy products such as cheese or milk. Additional supplementation may be needed for these patients. At this time, consensus—including specific postoperative recommended daily allowance guidelines—is needed to ensure the proper postsurgical treatment for patients who have had bariatric surgery—especially gastric bypass surgery.
To prevent surgical and other postoperative complications, one study 41 described the implementation of a multidisciplinary team—consisting of a primary care physician, dietician, gastroenterologist, and nursing staff—for patients undergoing bariatric surgery and the subsequent limited complications in patients.
Combined, multidisciplinary teams and consensus guidelines could help physicians provide better nutritional care for this patient population. Metabolic and bariatric surgery [fact sheet]. Accessed September 22, Spanakis E, Gragnoli C. Bariatric surgery, safety and type 2 diabetes [review] [published online ahead of print October 2, ].
Gastric banding or bypass? A systematic review comparing the two most popular bariatric procedures. National trends in use and outcome of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding [published online ahead of print August 19, ]. Surg Obes Relat Dis. Seven cases of gastric perforation in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass patients: Nutritional deficiencies following bariatric surgery: Noncompliance with behavioral recommendations following bariatric surgery.
Prevalence of iron, folate, and vitamin B12 deficiency after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass [published online ahead of print January 23, ]. Dietary supplement fact sheet: Nutritional consequences of adjustable gastric banding and gastric bypass: Reversible peripheral neuropathy induced by vitamin B12 deficiency [in French] [published online ahead of print January 25, ]. Hjalmar Schacht , President of the Reichsbank and Minister of Economics, created in May a scheme for deficit financing.
Capital projects were paid for with the issuance of promissory notes called Mefo bills. When the notes were presented for payment, the Reichsbank printed money. Hitler and his economic team expected that the upcoming territorial expansion would provide the means of repaying the soaring national debt. On 17 October , aviation pioneer Hugo Junkers , owner of the Junkers Aircraft Works , was arrested, and within a few days his company was expropriated.
In concert with other aircraft manufacturers and under the direction of Aviation Minister Göring, production was ramped up industry-wide. From a workforce of 3, people producing units per year in , the industry grew to employ a quarter of a million workers manufacturing over 10, technically advanced aircraft annually less than ten years later.
An elaborate bureaucracy was created to regulate imports of raw materials and finished goods with the intention of eliminating foreign competition in the German marketplace and improving the nation's balance of payments. The Nazis encouraged the development of synthetic replacements for materials such as oil and textiles. Any profits in excess of that amount would be turned over to the Reich. By , Farben regretted making the deal, as the excess profits by then being generated had to be given to the government.
Major public works projects financed with deficit spending included the construction of a network of Autobahnen and providing funding for programmes initiated by the previous government for housing and agricultural improvements.
Envisioning widespread car ownership as part of the new Germany, Hitler arranged for designer Ferdinand Porsche to draw up plans for the KdF-wagen Strength Through Joy car , intended to be an automobile that everyone could afford.
With the outbreak of World War II, the factory was converted to produce military vehicles. None were sold until after the war, when the vehicle was renamed the Volkswagen people's car.
Six million people were unemployed when the Nazis took power in and by there were fewer than a million. By early , the focus shifted from funding work creation schemes, towards rearmament. By , military expenditures accounted for 73 percent of the government's purchases of goods and services. The Nazi war economy was a mixed economy that combined a free market with central planning. Historian Richard Overy described it as being somewhere in between the command economy of the Soviet Union and the capitalist system of the United States.
Germany imported and enslaved some 12 million people from 20 European countries to work in factories and on farms. Approximately 75 percent were Eastern European. Poor living conditions led to high rates of sickness, injury and death, as well as sabotage and criminal activity.
Foreign workers brought into Germany were put into four different classifications: Each group was subject to different regulations. In addition, the Nazis issued a ban on sexual relations between Germans and foreign workers. By over a half million women served as auxiliaries in the German armed forces.
They also took over jobs formerly held by men, especially on farms and in family-owned shops. Very heavy strategic bombing by the Allies targeted refineries producing synthetic oil and gasoline , as well as the German transportation system, especially rail yards and canals. By November, fuel coal was no longer reaching its destinations and the production of new armaments was no longer possible. During the course of the war, the Nazis extracted considerable amounts of plunder from the territories and nations they conquered across Europe.
Historian and war correspondent William L. By February , the Reichsfinanzministerium Ministry of Finance had calculated that 48 billion Reichsmarks had been paid to Germany. By the end of the war, occupation costs were calculated by the Nazis to number 60 billion Reichsmarks, with France alone paying The Bank of France was also forced to provide 4.
The Nazis exploited other conquered nations in a similar way. After the war, the United States Strategic Bombing Survey concluded Germany had obtained billion Reichsmarks in the form of occupation costs and other wealth transfers from the whole of occupied Europe, including two-thirds of the gross domestic product of Belgium and the Netherlands. Nazi plunder included private and public art collections, artefacts, precious metals, books, and personal possessions.
Hitler and Göring in particular were interested in acquiring looted art treasures from occupied Europe,  the former planning to use the stolen art to fill the galleries of the planned Führermuseum Leader's Museum ,  and the latter for his personal collection.
Göring, having stripped almost all of occupied Poland of its artworks within six months of Germany's invasion, ultimately grew a collection valued at over 50 million Reichsmarks.
France saw the greatest extent of Nazi plunder. Some 26, railroad cars of art treasures, furniture, and other looted items were sent to Germany from France. Goods and raw materials were also taken. In France, an estimated 9,, tonnes 8,, long tons; 9,, short tons of cereals were seized and transported to Germany during the course of the war.
The valuation of this loot is estimated to be The plunder of Poland for raw materials began even before Germany had finished its invasion of the country. Poland can only be administered by utilizing the country through means of ruthless exploitation, deportation of all supplies, raw materials, machines, factory instilations, ect. Poland shall be treated as a colony. The Poles shall be the slaves of the Greater German Reich. Following Operation Barbarossa, the Soviet Union was also plundered.
In alone, 9,, tons of cereals, 2,, tonnes 2,, long tons; 2,, short tons of fodder, 3,, tonnes 3,, long tons; 3,, short tons of potatoes, and , tonnes , long tons; , short tons of meats were sent back to Germany. By the time the last German troops left Soviet territory in , some 12 million pigs and 13 million sheep had also been taken. The total value of Germany's plunder of the Soviet Union is estimated at 4 billion Reichsmarks. This relatively low number in comparison to the occupied nations of Western Europe can be attributed to the devastating fighting on the Eastern Front.
Nazi Germany's racial policy was based on their belief in the existence of a superior master race. The Nazis postulated the existence of a racial conflict between the Aryan master race and inferior races, particularly Jews, who were viewed as a mixed race that had infiltrated society and were responsible for the exploitation and repression of the Aryan race.
Discrimination against Jews began immediately after the seizure of power. Following a month-long series of attacks by members of the SA on Jewish businesses and synagogues, on 1 April Hitler declared a national boycott of Jewish businesses.
The regime used violence and economic pressure to encourage Jews to voluntarily leave the country. Citizens were harassed and subjected to violent attacks. In November , a young Jewish man requested an interview with the German ambassador in Paris and met with a legation secretary, whom he shot and killed to protest his family's treatment in Germany.
Members of the SA damaged or destroyed synagogues and Jewish property throughout Germany. The Jewish community was fined one billion marks to pay for the damage caused by Kristallnacht and told that any insurance settlements would be confiscated. Emigrants to Palestine were allowed to transfer property there under the terms of the Haavara Agreement , but those moving to other countries had to leave virtually all their property behind, and it was seized by the government.
Like the Jews, the Romani people were subjected to persecution from the early days of the regime. As a non-Aryan race, they were forbidden to marry people of German extraction. Romani were shipped to concentration camps starting in and were killed in large numbers. Action T4 was a programme of systematic murder of the physically and mentally handicapped and patients in psychiatric hospitals that mainly took place from to , and continued until the end of the war.
Initially the victims were shot by the Einsatzgruppen and others; in addition gas chambers and gas vans using carbon monoxide were used by early Mentally and physically ill people were also targeted. Most of the victims came from disadvantaged groups such as prostitutes, the poor, the homeless, and criminals. Germany's war in the East was based on Hitler's long-standing view that Jews were the great enemy of the German people and that Lebensraum was needed for Germany's expansion.
Hitler focused his attention on Eastern Europe, aiming to defeat Poland and the Soviet Union and remove or kill the resident Jews and Slavs. The Generalplan Ost "General Plan for the East" called for deporting the population of occupied Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union to Siberia, for use as slave labour or to be murdered.
Around the time of the failed offensive against Moscow in December , Hitler resolved that the Jews of Europe were to be exterminated immediately. Some would be worked to death and the rest would be killed in the implementation of Die Endlösung der Judenfrage the Final Solution of the Jewish question.
German citizens had access to information about what was happening, as soldiers returning from the occupied territories would report on what they had seen and done. Evans states that most German citizens disapproved of the genocide. In addition to eliminating Jews, the Nazis planned to reduce the population of the conquered territories by 30 million people through starvation in an action called the Hunger Plan.
Food supplies would be diverted to the German army and German civilians. Cities would be razed and the land allowed to return to forest or resettled by German colonists. Poles were viewed by Nazis as subhuman non-Aryans, and during the German occupation of Poland 2. The German authorities engaged in a systematic effort to destroy Polish culture and national identity.
During operation AB-Aktion , many university professors and members of the Polish intelligentsia were arrested, transported to concentration camps, or executed. During the war, Poland lost an estimated 39 to 45 percent of its physicians and dentists, 26 to 57 percent of its lawyers, 15 to 30 percent of its teachers, 30 to 40 percent of its scientists and university professors and 18 to 28 percent of its clergy.
Between June and January , the Nazis killed an estimated 2. Antisemitic legislation passed in led to the removal of all Jewish teachers, professors and officials from the education system. Frequent and often contradictory directives were issued by Interior Minister Wilhelm Frick, Bernhard Rust of the Reichserziehungsministerium Ministry of Education , and various other agencies regarding content of lessons and acceptable textbooks for use in primary and secondary schools.
Detailed National Socialist indoctrination of future holders of elite military rank was undertaken at Order Castles. Primary and secondary education focused on racial biology, population policy, culture, geography, and especially physical fitness. At universities, appointments to top posts were the subject of power struggles between the education ministry, the university boards, and the National Socialist German Students' League. Religion in Germany . When the Nazis seized power in , roughly 67 percent of the population of Germany was Protestant , 33 percent was Roman Catholic , while Jews made up less than 1 percent.
Under the Gleichschaltung process, Hitler attempted to create a unified Protestant Reich Church from Germany's 28 existing Protestant state churches ,  with the ultimate goal of eradication of the churches in Germany.
Persecution of the Catholic Church in Germany followed the Nazi takeover. Catholic schools were required to reduce religious instruction and crucifixes were removed from state buildings. Pope Pius XI had the " Mit brennender Sorge " "With Burning Concern" encyclical smuggled into Germany for Passion Sunday and read from every pulpit as it denounced the systematic hostility of the regime toward the church.
Enrolment in denominational schools dropped sharply and by all such schools were disbanded or converted to public facilities. He planned the "extermination of the foreign Christian faiths imported into Germany", and for the Bible and Christian cross to be replaced in all churches, cathedrals, and chapels with copies of Mein Kampf and the swastika. Nazi Germany had a strong anti-tobacco movement as pioneering research by Franz H.
Müller in demonstrated a causal link between tobacco smoking and lung cancer. Government-run health care insurance plans were available, but Jews were denied coverage starting in That same year, Jewish doctors were forbidden to treat government-insured patients. In , Jewish doctors were forbidden to treat non-Jewish patients and in their right to practice medicine was removed entirely. Medical experiments, many of them pseudoscientific , were performed on concentration camp inmates beginning in Josef Mengele , camp doctor at Auschwitz.
Women were a cornerstone of Nazi social policy and the Nazis opposed the feminist movement, claiming that it was the creation of Jewish intellectuals, instead advocating a patriarchal society in which the German woman would recognise that her "world is her husband, her family, her children, and her home". Courses were offered on childrearing, sewing and cooking.
Women were encouraged to leave the workforce and the creation of large families by racially suitable women was promoted through a propaganda campaign. Women received a bronze award—known as the Ehrenkreuz der Deutschen Mutter Cross of Honour of the German Mother —for giving birth to four children, silver for six and gold for eight or more.
Though the measures led to increases in the birth rate, the number of families having four or more children declined by five percent between and After the war started, slave labourers were extensively used. The Nazi regime discouraged women from seeking higher education since Nazi leaders held conservative views about women and endorsed the idea that rational and theoretical work was alien to a woman's nature since they were considered inherently emotional and instinctive — as such, engaging in academics and careerism would only "divert them from motherhood".
The number of women enrolled in post-secondary schools dropped from , in to 51, in However, with the requirement that men be enlisted into the armed forces during the war, women comprised half of the enrolment in the post-secondary system by Women were expected to be strong, healthy and vital. The BDM's activities focused on physical education, with activities such as running, long jumping, somersaulting, tightrope walking, marching and swimming.
The Nazi regime promoted a liberal code of conduct regarding sexual matters and was sympathetic to women who bore children out of wedlock. Soldier's wives were frequently involved in extramarital relationships.
Sex was sometimes used as a commodity to obtain better work from a foreign labourer. With Hitler's approval, Himmler intended that the new society of the Nazi regime should destigmatise illegitimate births, particularly of children fathered by members of the SS, who were vetted for racial purity. Existing laws banning abortion except for medical reasons were strictly enforced by the Nazi regime. The number of abortions declined from 35, per year at the start of the s to fewer than 2, per year at the end of the decade, though in a law was passed allowing abortions for eugenics reasons.
Nazi society had elements supportive of animal rights and many people were fond of zoos and wildlife. In , the Nazis enacted a stringent animal-protection law that affected what was allowed for medical research.
The Reich Forestry Office under Göring enforced regulations that required foresters to plant a wide variety of trees to ensure suitable habitat for wildlife and a new Reich Animal Protection Act became law in Evans , The Coming of the Third Reich The regime promoted the concept of Volksgemeinschaft , a national German ethnic community. The goal was to build a classless society based on racial purity and the perceived need to prepare for warfare, conquest and a struggle against Marxism.
In addition to taking control of tens of thousands of previously privately run recreational clubs, it offered highly regimented holidays and entertainment such as cruises, vacation destinations and concerts.
Sub-chambers were set up to control aspects of cultural life such as film, radio, newspapers, fine arts, music, theatre and literature. Members of these professions were required to join their respective organisation.
Jews and people considered politically unreliable were prevented from working in the arts and many emigrated. Books and scripts had to be approved by the Propaganda Ministry prior to publication. Standards deteriorated as the regime sought to use cultural outlets exclusively as propaganda media. Radio became popular in Germany during the s, with over 70 percent of households owning a receiver by , more than any other country.
Radio station staffs were purged of leftists and others deemed undesirable by July As with other media, newspapers were controlled by the state, with the Reich Press Chamber shutting down or buying newspapers and publishing houses. By , over two thirds of the newspapers and magazines were directly owned by the Propaganda Ministry. Under Goebbels, the Propaganda Ministry issued two dozen directives every week on exactly what news should be published and what angles to use; the typical newspaper followed the directives closely, especially regarding what to omit.
Authors of books left the country in droves and some wrote material critical of the regime while in exile. Goebbels recommended that the remaining authors concentrate on books themed on Germanic myths and the concept of blood and soil. By the end of , over a thousand books—most of them by Jewish authors or featuring Jewish characters—had been banned by the Nazi regime. In Berlin over 20, books being burned at the square at the State Opera. Pacifist works, as well as literature espousing liberal, democratic tendencies and attitudes were targeted for destruction, as well as any writings supporting the Weimar Republic or those written by Jewish authors.
Hitler took a personal interest in architecture and worked closely with state architects Paul Troost and Albert Speer to create public buildings in a neoclassical style based on Roman architecture. Neither structure was built. Hitler's belief that abstract , Dadaist , expressionist and modern art were decadent became the basis for policy.
The exhibition proved wildly popular, attracting over two million visitors. Movies were popular in Germany in the s and s, with admissions of over a billion people in , and Exports of German films plummeted, as their antisemitic content made them impossible to show in other countries. The two largest film companies, Universum Film AG and Tobis , were purchased by the Propaganda Ministry, which by was producing most German films.
The productions were not always overtly propagandistic, but generally had a political subtext and followed party lines regarding themes and content. Leni Riefenstahl 's Triumph of the Will —documenting the Nuremberg Rally—and Olympia —covering the Summer Olympics —pioneered techniques of camera movement and editing that influenced later films.
New techniques such as telephoto lenses and cameras mounted on tracks were employed. Both films remain controversial, as their aesthetic merit is inseparable from their propagandising of National Socialist ideals. The Allied powers organised war crimes trials, beginning with the Nuremberg trials , held from November to October , of 23 top Nazi officials. They were charged with four counts—conspiracy to commit crimes, crimes against peace, war crimes and crimes against humanity —in violation of international laws governing warfare.
The display or use of Nazi symbolism such as flags, swastikas or greetings is illegal in Germany and Austria   and other restrictions, mainly on public display, apply in various countries. Nazi ideology and the actions taken by the regime are almost universally regarded as gravely immoral.
Evans remarks that the era "exerts an almost universal appeal because its murderous racism stands as a warning to the whole of humanity". The Nazi era continues to inform how Germans view themselves and their country. Virtually every family suffered losses during the war or has a story to tell, though Germans kept quiet about their experiences and felt a sense of communal guilt, even if they were not directly involved in war crimes.
Once study of Nazi Germany was introduced into the school curriculum starting in the s, people began researching the experiences of their family members. Study of the era and a willingness to critically examine its mistakes has led to the development of a strong democracy in today's Germany, but with lingering undercurrents of antisemitism and neo-Nazi thought. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Third reich. For the book, see Das Dritte Reich.
Das Lied der Deutschen "Song of the Germans". Administrative divisions of Germany, January Nazi one-party totalitarian dictatorship. The German state from to , under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler. Adolf Hitler's rise to power.
Anschluss and German occupation of Czechoslovakia. Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia. Mass suicides in Nazi Germany. Territorial evolution of Germany.
Government of Nazi Germany. Economy of Nazi Germany. Nazism and race and Racial policy of Nazi Germany. Anti-Jewish legislation in prewar Nazi Germany. Porajmos and Nazi eugenics. Nazi crimes against the Polish nation. German mistreatment of Soviet prisoners of war and Generalplan Ost. University education in Nazi Germany. Other religion or irreligious 4. Religion in Nazi Germany. Women in Nazi Germany. Animal welfare in Nazi Germany. If the experience of the Third Reich teaches us anything, it is that a love of great music, great art and great literature does not provide people with any kind of moral or political immunization against violence, atrocity, or subservience to dictatorship.
List of authors banned in Nazi Germany. Nazi architecture and Art of the Third Reich. See Statistisches Jahrbuch It could not be expected that even for a brief period our Air Force could make up for our lack of naval supremacy. Grand Admiral Karl Dönitz believed air superiority was not enough and admitted, "We possessed neither control of the air or the sea; nor were we in any position to gain it.
The figure of 2 to 2. The German Red Cross still maintains that the death toll from the expulsions is 2. Goebbel's propaganda campaigns carried out in the second half of and again in had failed to convert them". Evans , p. Women in the Third Reich. The German Churches and the Nazi State. End of the Thousand Year Reich. Oxford; New York, NY: The Second World War.
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A History of the German Resistance to Hitler. Theory and Practice of Leadership. How the Red Army Stopped Hitler. University Press of Kansas. Suicide in Nazi Germany. Ordinary Germans and the Holocaust. Government of West Germany Statistisches Jahrbuch für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland in German. A Social History of Nazi Germany — Holt Rinehart and Winston. Aspekte und Erkenntnisse zur Geschichte der deutschen Bevölkerungswissenschaft in German.
Hahn, Hans Henning; Hahnova, Eva Die Vertreibung im deutschen Erinnern. Legenden, Mythos, Geschichte in German. Genocide Studies and Prevention: International Association of Genocide Scholars. Retrieved 14 April Harding, Thomas 23 August Retrieved 22 December Generalny Plan Wschodni narodowych socjalistów: The Struggle for Europe: Hoffmann, Peter .
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