In , Granada's Muslims were given an ultimatum to either convert to Christianity or to emigrate. The University of Texas at San Antonio. I enjoyed many of the foods that Nutrisystem offers. So far, I love all of the foods I've tried. Can you tell me where it is, please? Contract your abdominals to stabilize the body, and avoid using momentum to swing the bar up and down.
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Next time I go veggie 4 out of 5 stars. I tried Nutri System almost two years ago and lost 22 pounds pretty quickly. If I need it again, I'll try the vegetarian meals as I hear they're just as tasty and easy to prepare as the Basic Plan. I gave the Basic Plan 4 stars because one shipment of food I received was missing two snack bars. Be sure to count your food when you get it to ensure everything is there.
Easy As Pie 5 out of 5 stars. I just started Nutrisystem about a week ago and I absolutely love it! I am a very picky eater, so I thought the food was going to be questionable, but it is surprisingly good. I really like that I don't need to count calories or spend a lot of time preparing meals. I have been pretty good about completing the daily logs online exercise, meals, water, etc.
They help me keep on track. One of the things I think is absolutely great about Nutrisystem is the literature they provide with your 1st order. I received a restaurant guide used it twice already and a menu book that includes approved foods you can use to supplement your menu at the grocery store. I am doing the 5 day flex plan, but am contemplating upgrading to the full 7-day program as it really is a no brainer and I am concerned about having the liberty to choose my own meals on the weekends that has proven to be very dangerous!
The program is really simple to follow and my carb, sugar and salt cravings are gone. Today my wife came home with a cookie for my son she bought at Starbucks. It looked so good, so I decided to have the NS chocolate chip cookie for my dessert and it was very satisfying. I love this program! I have been on Nutrisystem for 6 months and I have lost just over 35 lbs. I also joined a local gym and have a personal trainer which of course helps.
My goal is to look as good as the day I graduated from High School when I go to my 50th class reunion in By the way, I already think I look better than the day I graduated! I know, wishful thinking, right? I've been on it for over a year and only lost 45 pounds. My support group keeps telling me to stick with it longer, claiming that if you stick with the plan you will lose all the weight you want.
I've read on the NS support forums that 45 pounds is great, but I had hoped that I would have lost pounds by now. Maybe I'll need to start exercising after all. When I started the program I did not know if I would stick with it.
Diets can be hard to stick with sometimes. However, the Nutrisystem plan is not hard to stick with. The plan is laid out so simply that anyone can follow it. The Nutrisystem plan comes with a money back guarantee. If a person joins the program and does not like it he can receive his money back.
The plan is so easy to follow. I have lost 22 pounds on the program while eating things like chocolate cake. Unlike Medifast, the food is delicious. If you are thinking of trying the plan but are afraid that you will not like the food please stop worrying. The Nutrisystem plan comes with a great menu with foods on the menu that are very delicious.
I have lost 32 pounds and finally feel like I may make my goal of losing I wasn't thrilled with the food when I started, but now that I can choose the foods that I really like it is much better. I love the pizzas loaded with red pepper or onions and pineapple. We've had out of town company and been to many family gatherings, where I used to overeat.
I find that when I have my own food that I like and because I am rarely hunger now, that the temptation to cheat is just not there. I also love most of the desserts, but who doesn't: Five years ago I lost 62 lbs on NS, but over the years I gained back 38 lbs. Now I am back on the system and intend to stay until I reach my goal weight. My co-worker is using Jenny Craig but it was just to cost prohibitive for me. I've tried her meals and honestly didn't think they were as tasty as Nutrisystems are.
Just 65 Pounds Left To Go 4 out of 5 stars. I am on my 10th day on Nutrisystem and I absolutely love it! The food is great and a lot better tasting than Jenny Craig.
I have lost 8 pounds so far and am really excited. I have 65 more to go to reach my goal weight. The website is full of good information and tons of motivation which I need and love!! Anyone can do this diet. At 32 years old, I had surpassed pounds and went on a diet with Slimfast Shakes and low fat dinners that I made.
I was single at the time and had the time to prepare my own meals and exercise vigorously for about an hour 5 days a week. Needless to say, I did lose 40 lbs in 3 months, but it was hard work and I was always hungry. I'm now 40 years old now and after several failed starts I decided to give Nutrisystem a go.
Being married with 2 children, my time is much more limited now. Nutrisystem is perfect for this reason as I don't have to count calories — it's all done online for me. The meals are reasonably good and you can pretty much choose the meals you want. The first month I went with the default menu and selected the meals I liked best for the second and third month.
I'm following the menu strictly and my caloric intake is around calories a day. All in all, I have been on the diet for 42 days and I have lost 23 lbs and 3 inches off my waist! This program is well worth it! I needed to go on a diet. I had gained 25 pounds over the last year and I could not fit into any of my clothes. I did not want to go buy a whole new wardrobe when I already had a perfectly good one.
With Nutrisystem I have access to a website that allows me to track my weight loss progress. I enjoy logging onto the website and seeing how far I have come.
I also get support from the website. I enjoy almost all of the foods Nutrisystem has to offer. They all taste pretty good. The best part of Nutrisystem is that I have lost weight with a program that is extremely easy to follow. I liked many aspects of the diet; however, I thought the food portions were too small.
Maybe I'm too used to supersizing everything? The Nutrisystem plan does work though. When I was using the plan I lost about fifteen pounds. The plan was also very easy to follow. I did not have to weigh out food. I did not have to count calories. I did not have to figure out which foods to eat to lose weight. I just had to follow the instructions that came with the plan and eat the food that the plan provided me with.
When I joined the Nutrisystem plan I also received 24 hour access to the Nutrisystem web site where I could chat with someone for support daily if I needed to.
Haven't used it, but its nice to know its there for me. The food was just as tasty as pre-cooked frozen meals you buy in the grocery store. I enjoyed many of the foods that Nutrisystem offers. The desserts and snacks were delicious. The dinners are done very nicely with foods that are very tasteful and full of flavor.
The breakfasts were good I especially liked the pancakes. The lunches were also good. The thing I did not like about Nutrisystem was that the portions of foods they provided were too small. The program is extremely easy to use. Any man can join the program and expect to lose weight easily. I joined the plan and Nutrisystem sent me dieting tools, instructions on how to use the plan and great tasting foods.
I also have access to Nutrisystems website. The website includes chat rooms, blogs, and group discussions about dieting. The website is a great place for me to go to receive support. I have not felt this energetic in awhile. I now have the energy to get through the day without feeling so tired. I even have enough energy to work out. Without the Nutrisystem plan I would still be overweight, unhealthy and unhappy. Without Nutrisystem I would still be eating unhealthy and gaining weight instead of losing weight.
I joined Nutrisystem two and a half months ago. When I first started the program it was an adjustment I had to get used to. I was used to overeating all of the time. With Nutrisystem the food portions are designed to be just right so a person gets the nutrition he needs and still loses weight.
I had to get used to eating the right sized portion instead of overeating. The treadmill burns the most calories of any of the cardiovascular machines available at most gyms, says Alexander.
You can expect to burn about calories per mile, walking briskly. Stamford notes that a treadmill can be adapted to many different fitness levels by increasing the speed from walking to running or by adjusting the incline. But even walking may be too much for someone who is overweight and has joint pain. Every time your foot hits the ground, says Alexander, "the impact forces are 3. Since a treadmill is moving under you, the impact may be slightly less than that.
One more thing to keep in mind: Treadmills can pose a real balance challenge for new exercisers or those who haven't worked out in a while, says Matthew Vukovich, exercise physiologist and associate professor at South Dakota State University.
These machines pack a little less punch on the joints, and either can be a good alternative to the treadmill, says Vukovich. Because you use them in a standing position, you're using lots of muscle mass, so the calorie burn rate is still pretty high. Elliptical machines with arm components can further increase the numbers of calories you burn, says Stamford.
All our experts agree that the stationary bike offers the workout with the least impact on the joints. People with knee pain are often steered toward these bikes, since the impact of body weight is not a concern as it is on a treadmill, elliptical trainer, or stair stepper. But to avoid knee strain, you must make sure the bike is adjusted to fit your body, Vukovich says.
Most people sit too low, meaning their knees flex too much as they pedal. This can put too much pressure on the knee and result in soreness, warn Vukovich. The stationary bike is a less intense calorie-burner than some of the other machines. You'll need to pedal four miles to burn calories, says Alexander. Rowers are more advanced cardiovascular machines. Because you must push with the legs while you pull with the arms, rowers require coordination. They also you require you to engage your core abdominal muscles to support and protect your back.
Martin Luther published his famous 95 Theses in Wittenberg on 31 October His major aim was theological, summed up in the three basic dogmas of Protestantism:. In consequence, Luther hoped to stop the sale of indulgences and to reform the Church from within.
After he refused to recant, he was declared heretic. He was excommunicated by Papal Bull in However, the movement continued to gain ground in his absence and spread to Switzerland. Huldrych Zwingli preached reform in Zürich from to He opposed the sale of indulgences, celibacy, pilgrimages, pictures, statues, relics, altars, and organs.
This culminated in outright war between the Swiss cantons that accepted Protestantism and the Catholics. The Catholics were victorious, and Zwingli was killed in battle in The Catholic cantons were magnanimous in victory. The defiance of Papal authority proved contagious, and in , when Henry VIII of England was excommunicated for his divorce and remarriage to Anne Boleyn, he promptly established a state church with bishops appointed by the crown.
This was not without internal opposition, and Thomas More , who had been his Lord Chancellor, was executed in for opposition to Henry. In , the Swiss canton of Geneva became Protestant. In , the Bernese imposed the reformation on the canton of Vaud by conquest. They sacked the cathedral in Lausanne and destroyed all its art and statuary. John Calvin , who had been active in Geneva was expelled in in a power struggle, but he was invited back in The same kind of seesaw back and forth between Protestantism and Catholicism was evident in England when Mary I of England returned that country briefly to the Catholic fold in and persecuted Protestants.
However, her half-sister, Elizabeth I of England was to restore the Church of England in , this time permanently, and began to persecute Catholics again. The King James Bible commissioned by King James I of England and published in proved a landmark for Protestant worship, with official Catholic forms of worship being banned.
In France, although peace was made between Protestants and Catholics at the Treaty of Saint Germain in , persecution continued, most notably in the Massacre of Saint Bartholomew's Day on 24 August , in which thousands of Protestants throughout France were killed.
A few years before, at the "Michelade" of Nîmes in , Protestants had massacred the local Catholic clergy. Bohemia present-day Czech Republic enjoyed religious freedom between and , and became one of the most liberal countries of the Christian world during that period of time. The so-called Basel Compacts of declared the freedom of religion and peace between Catholics and Utraquists.
The privileged position of the Catholic Church in the Czech kingdom was firmly established after the Battle of White Mountain in Gradually freedom of religion in Bohemian lands came to an end and Protestants fled or were expelled from the country. In the meantime, in Germany Philip Melanchthon drafted the Augsburg Confession as a common confession for the Lutherans and the free territories.
It was presented to Charles V in Each state was to take the religion of its prince, but within those states, there was not necessarily religious tolerance. Citizens of other faiths could relocate to a more hospitable environment. In France, from the s, many attempts to reconcile Catholics and Protestants and to establish tolerance failed because the State was too weak to enforce them. It took the victory of prince Henry IV of France, who had converted into Protestantism, and his accession to the throne, to impose religious tolerance formalized in the Edict of Nantes in Intolerance remained the norm until Louis XVI, who signed the Edict of Versailles , then the constitutional text of 24 December , granting civilian rights to Protestants.
The French Revolution then abolished state religion and confiscated all Church property, turning intolerance against Catholics. Calvinism, however, was prohibited. Calvinism was included among the accepted religions in However, it was more than a religious tolerance; it declared the equality of the religions, prohibiting all kinds of acts from authorities or from simple people, which could harm other groups or people because of their religious beliefs.
The emergence in social hierarchy wasn't dependent on the religion of the person thus Transylvania had also Catholic and Protestant monarchs, who all respected the Edict of Torda. The lack of state religion was unique for centuries in Europe. Therefore, the Edict of Torda is considered as the first legal guarantee of religious freedom in Christian Europe.
Act of Religious Tolerance and Freedom of Conscience: If not, no one shall compel them for their souls would not be satisfied, but they shall be permitted to keep a preacher whose teaching they approve. Therefore none of the superintendents or others shall abuse the preachers, no one shall be reviled for his religion by anyone, according to the previous statutes, and it is not permitted that anyone should threaten anyone else by imprisonment or by removal from his post for his teaching.
For faith is the gift of God and this comes from hearing, which hearings is by the word of God. Four religions Catholicism , Lutheranism , Calvinism , Unitarianism were named as accepted religions religo recepta , having their representatives in the Transylvanian Diet, while the other religions, like the Orthodoxs , Sabbatarians and Anabaptists were tolerated churches religio tolerata , which meant that they had no power in the law making and no veto rights in the Diet, but they were not persecuted in any way.
Thanks to the Edict of Torda, from the last decades of the 16th Century Transylvania was the only place in Europe, where so many religions could live together in harmony and without persecution. This religious freedom ended however for some of the religions of Transylvania in After this year the Sabbatarians begun to be persecuted, and forced to convert to one of the accepted religions of Transylvania.
Also the Unitarians despite of being one of the "accepted religions" started to be put under an ever-growing pressure, which culminated after the Habsburg conquest of Transylvania ,  Also after the Habsburg occupation, the new Austrian masters forced in the middle of the 18th century the Hutterite Anabaptists who found a safe heaven in in Transylvania, after the persecution to which they were subjected in the Austrian provinces and Moravia to convert to Catholicism or to migrate in another country, which finally the Anabaptists did, leaving Transylvania and Hungary for Wallachia, than from there to Russia, and finally in the United States.
In the Union of Utrecht 20 January , personal freedom of religion was declared in the struggle between the Northern Netherlands and Spain. The Union of Utrecht was an important step in the establishment of the Dutch Republic from to Under Calvinist leadership, the Netherlands became the most tolerant country in Europe.
It granted asylum to persecuted religious minorities, such as the Huguenots, the Dissenters, and the Jews who had been expelled from Spain and Portugal. When New Amsterdam surrendered to the English in , freedom of religion was guaranteed in the Articles of Capitulation.
It benefitted also the Jews who had landed on Manhattan Island in , fleeing Portuguese persecution in Brazil. Intolerance of dissident forms of Protestantism also continued, as evidenced by the exodus of the Pilgrims, who sought refuge, first in the Netherlands, and ultimately in America, founding Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts in William Penn , the founder of Philadelphia, was involved in a case which had a profound effect upon future American laws and those of England.
In a classic case of jury nullification, the jury refused to convict William Penn of preaching a Quaker sermon, which was illegal. Even though the jury was imprisoned for their acquittal, they stood by their decision and helped establish the freedom of religion. The statute served as the basis for the legal position of Jews in Poland and led to the creation of the Yiddish -speaking autonomous Jewish nation until The statute granted exclusive jurisdiction of Jewish courts over Jewish matters and established a separate tribunal for matters involving Christians and Jews.
Additionally, it guaranteed personal liberties and safety for Jews including freedom of religion, travel, and trade. The statute was ratified by subsequent Polish Kings: Poland freed Jews from direct royal authority, opening up enormous administrative and economic opportunities to them. The right to worship freely was a basic right given to all inhabitants of the future Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth throughout the 15th and early 16th century, however, complete freedom of religion was officially recognized in during the Warsaw Confederation.
Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth kept religious freedom laws during an era when religious persecution was an everyday occurrence in the rest of Europe. Most of the early colonies were generally not tolerant of dissident forms of worship, with Maryland being one of the exceptions.
For example, Roger Williams found it necessary to found a new colony in Rhode Island to escape persecution in the theocratically dominated colony of Massachusetts. The Puritans of the Massachusetts Bay Colony were the most active of the New England persecutors of Quakers , and the persecuting spirit was shared by Plymouth Colony and the colonies along the Connecticut river.
Freedom of religion was first applied as a principle of government in the founding of the colony of Maryland, founded by the Catholic Lord Baltimore , in The Maryland Toleration Act was repealed during the Cromwellian Era with the assistance of Protestant assemblymen and a new law barring Catholics from openly practicing their religion was passed. This time, it would last more than thirty years, until  when, after Maryland's Protestant Revolution of , freedom of religion was again rescinded.
Catholics and later on Jews also had full citizenship and free exercise of their religions. Williams gave the most profound argument: As faith is the free work of the Holy Spirit , it cannot be forced on a person.
Therefore, strict separation of church and state has to be kept. It was the inseparable connection between democracy, religious freedom, and the other forms of freedom which became the political and legal basis of the new nation. Reiterating Maryland's and the other colonies' earlier colonial legislation, the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom , written in by Thomas Jefferson , proclaimed:.
Those sentiments also found expression in the First Amendment of the national constitution, part of the United States' Bill of Rights: The United States formally considers religious freedom in its foreign relations.
The International Religious Freedom Act of established the United States Commission on International Religious Freedom which investigates the records of over other nations with respect to religious freedom, and makes recommendations to submit nations with egregious records to ongoing scrutiny and possible economic sanctions. Many human rights organizations have urged the United States to be still more vigorous in imposing sanctions on countries that do not permit or tolerate religious freedom.
Freedom of religion in Canada is a constitutionally protected right, allowing believers the freedom to assemble and worship without limitation or interference. Canadian law goes further, requiring that private citizens and companies provide reasonable accommodation to those, for example, with strong religious beliefs.
The Canadian Human Rights Act allows an exception to reasonable accommodation with respect to religious dress, such as a Sikh turban , when there is a bona fide occupational requirement, such as a workplace requiring a hard hat. This declaration recognizes freedom of religion as a fundamental human right in accordance with several other instruments of international law. However, the most substantial binding legal instruments that guarantee the right to freedom of religion that was passed by the international community is the Convention on the Rights of the Child which states in its Article In , the UN's human rights committee declared that article 18 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights "protects theistic, non-theistic and atheistic beliefs, as well as the right not to profess any religion or belief.
Despite this, minority religions still are persecuted in many parts of the world. The French philosopher Voltaire noted in his book on English society, Letters on the English , that freedom of religion in a diverse society was deeply important to maintaining peace in that country. That it was also important in understanding why England at that time was more prosperous in comparison to the country's less religiously tolerant European neighbours. Adam Smith , in his book The Wealth of Nations using an argument first put forward by his friend and contemporary David Hume , states that in the long run it is in the best interests of society as a whole and the civil magistrate government in particular to allow people to freely choose their own religion, as it helps prevent civil unrest and reduces intolerance.
It is this free competition amongst religious sects for converts that ensures stability and tranquillity in the long run. Smith also points out that laws that prevent religious freedom and seek to preserve the power and belief in a particular religion will, in the long run, only serve to weaken and corrupt that religion, as its leaders and preachers become complacent, disconnected and unpractised in their ability to seek and win over new converts: The interested and active zeal of religious teachers can be dangerous and troublesome only where there is either but one sect tolerated in the society, or where the whole of a large society is divided into two or three great sects; the teachers of each acting by concert, and under a regular discipline and subordination.
But that zeal must be altogether innocent, where the society is divided into two or three hundred, or, perhaps, into as many thousand small sects, of which no one could be considerable enough to disturb the public tranquillity. The teachers of each sect, seeing themselves surrounded on all sides with more adversaries than friends, would be obliged to learn that candour and moderation which are so seldom to be found among the teachers of those great sects.
Hinduism is one of the more broad-minded religions when it comes to religious freedom. Hindus believe in different ways to preach attainment of God and religion as a philosophy and hence respect all religions as equal. One of the famous Hindu sayings about religion is: However, Judaism also exists in many forms as a civilization, possessing characteristics known as peoplehood, rather than strictly as a religion. However, these laws are not adhered to anymore as Jews have usually lived among a multi-religious community.
After the conquest of the Kingdoms of Israel and Judea by the Roman Empire, a Jewish state did not exist until with the establishment of the State of Israel. For over years Jewish people lived under pagan, Christian, Muslim, etc. As such Jewish people in some of these states faced persecution. In the Middle East, Jews were categorised as dhimmi, non- Muslims permitted to live within a Muslim state.
Even though given rights within a Muslim state, a dhimmi is still not equal to a Muslim within Muslim society, the same way non-Jewish Israeli citizens are not equal with Jewish citizens in modern-day Israel. Possibly because of this history of long term persecution, Jews in modernity have been among the most active proponents of religious freedom in the US and abroad and have founded and supported anti-hate institutions, including the Anti-Defamation League, the Southern Poverty Law Center and the American Civil Liberties Union.
Jews are very active in supporting Muslim and other religious groups in the US against discrimination and hate crimes and most Jewish congregations throughout the US and many individual Jews participate in interfaith community projects and programs. While the Israel Declaration of Independence stresses religious freedom as a fundamental principle, in practice the current [ timeframe?
However, as a nation state, Israel is very open towards other religions and religious practices, including public Muslim call to prayer chants and Christian prayer bells ringing in Jerusalem. Israel has been evaluated in research by the Pew organization as having "high" government restrictions on religion. The government recognizes only Orthodox Judaism in certain matters of personal status, and marriages can only be performed by religious authorities.
The government provides the greatest funding to Orthodox Judaism, even though adherents represent a minority of citizens. Women of the Wall have organized to promote religious freedom at the Wall. Rabbi Joel Levy, director of the Conservative Yeshiva in Jerusalem, said that he had submitted the request on behalf of the students and saw their shock when the request was denied.
According to the Catholic Church in the Vatican II document on religious freedom, Dignitatis Humanae , "the human person has a right to religious freedom", which is described as "immunity from coercion in civil society".
The Syllabus was made up of phrases and paraphrases from earlier papal documents, along with index references to them, and presented as a list of "condemned propositions". It does not explain why each particular proposition is wrong, but it cites earlier documents to which the reader can refer for the Pope's reasons for saying each proposition is false.
Among the statements included in the Syllabus are: Some Orthodox Christians, especially those living in democratic countries, support religious freedom for all, as evidenced by the position of the Ecumenical Patriarchate.
Many Protestant Christian churches, including some Baptists , Churches of Christ , Seventh-day Adventist Church and main line churches have a commitment to religious freedoms. However others, such as African scholar Makau Mutua , have argued that Christian insistence on the propagation of their faith to native cultures as an element of religious freedom has resulted in a corresponding denial of religious freedom to native traditions and led to their destruction.
As he states in the book produced by the Oslo Coalition on Freedom of Religion or Belief, "Imperial religions have necessarily violated individual conscience and the communal expressions of Africans and their communities by subverting African religions. In their book Breaking India , Rajiv Malhotra and Aravindan Neelakandan discussed the "US Church" funding activities in India, such as the popularly advertised campaigns to "save" poor children by feeding, clothing, and educating them, with the book arguing that the funds collected were being used not so much for the purposes indicated to sponsors, but for indoctrination and conversion activities.
They suggest that this nexus of players includes not only church groups, government bodies, and related organizations, but also private think tanks and academics. Joel Spring has written about the Christianization of the Roman Empire:. Christianity added new impetus to the expansion of empire. Increasing the arrogance of the imperial project, Christians insisted that the Gospels and the Church were the only valid sources of religious beliefs.
Imperialists could claim that they were both civilizing the world and spreading the true religion. By the 5th century, Christianity was thought of as co-extensive with the Imperium romanum. This meant that to be human, as opposed to being a natural slave, was to be "civilized" and Christian. Conversion to Islam is simple, but Muslims are forbidden to convert from Islam to another religion.
Certain Muslim-majority countries are known for their restrictions on religious freedom, highly favoring Muslim citizens over non-Muslim citizens. Other countries [ who?